As the coronavirus pandemic is far from ending, more questions regarding the female reproductive system, particularly fertility issues, arise. The purpose of this paper is to bring light upon the possible link between COVID-19 and women’s reproductive health. This review emphasizes the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the hormones, endometrium and menstrual cycle, ovarian reserve, follicular fluid, oocytes, and embryos. The results showed that endometrial samples did not express SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Regarding the menstrual cycle, there is a large range of alterations, but they were all reversible within the following months. The ovarian reserve was not significantly affected in patients recovering from both mild and severe infection in most cases, except one, where the levels of AMH were significantly lower and basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were increased. All COVID-19 recovered patients had positive levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the follicular fluid. The amount of retrieved and mature oocytes and the fertilization rate were unharmed in three studies, except for one study, where the quantity of retrieved and mature oocytes was reduced in patients with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The numbers of blastocysts, top-quality embryos, and euploid embryos were affected in most of the studies reviewed.
Objective: Anti-Mullerian hormone has been indicated as a novel biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment. This study aimed to determine the comparative advantage of serum levels of AMH, FSH, LH, E2, and LH/FSH ratio among women with varying menstrual cycles and duration of menstruation.
Material and Method: A total of 90 subjects, which consisted of sixty subjects and thirty healthy subjects as control, were recruited. Blood samples were collected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle and evaluated for ovarian markers using the ELISA technique. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0.
Results: AMH and LH/FSH levels were lower in women with varying menstrual cycles than in the control group. FSH, LH, and E2 levels were significantly higher in women with varying menstrual cycles and flow duration than in the control group(P<0.05). AMH was negatively correlated with age (r= -0.72), BMI( r= -0.4), FSH(r= - 0.3), LH(r = -0.2) (p<0.05) and E2(r= -0.2, p>0.05). Also age was positively correlated with FSH(r=0.5,p<0.05), E2(r=0.3, p<0.05) and BMI(r=0.4, p<0.05). The level of AMH was not significant with cycle length and days of flow(p>0.05). This implies that AMH can be measured independently of the cycle phase. This show that AMH was lower in women with varying menstrual cycle with an increase in gonadotrophin and E2. The strong negative relationship between age and AMH implies that age is determining factor of ovarian reserve.
Conclusion: AMH combined with age and FSH may improve ovarian reserve evaluation, making AMH a better marker
Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) fail to prevent seizure recurrence in more than 30% of patients with epilepsy. The treatment is more difficult in premenopausal women with epilepsy (WWE) because changes in plasma estrogen and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle often affect seizure frequency and intensity. Interactions between enzyme-inducin ASMs and hormonal contraceptives can lead to both a loss of seizure control and failure of contraception. Significant changes in the function of the liver and kidneys during pregnancy can accelerate metabolism and elimination of ASMs, causing breakthrough seizures. In addition, the teratogenic, cognitive, and psychological effects of ASMs on potential offspring have to be considered when choosing the best ASM regimen. Therefore, aspecialized approach is necessary for the treatment of premenopausal WWE.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common problem of women of reproductive age, affecting various aspects of their lives. However, limited studies have investigated the effect of internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) on PMS. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether ICBT can reduce symptom severity of women with PMS and improve their quality of life during the perimenstrual and late follicular phases of menstrual cycle.
The study included 92 university students aged 18–35 years who had moderate to severe PMS. The participants were allocated into two groups of 46 using block randomization. The intervention group underwent ICBT for two menstrual cycles, while the control group received no intervention. Before and after the intervention, all participants filled the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) for two menstrual cycles and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) on days 1–2 and 11–13 of the menstrual cycle. Data were analyzed using univariate general linear models.
Four students in the intervention group were lost to follow-up. Following the intervention, the mean score of total PMS symptoms was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10.4 vs. 20.2, adjusted difference: − 9.9 [95% CI − 13.3 to − 6.6]), and the score of perimenstrual quality of life was significantly higher (64.2 vs. 50.3, 14.1 [8.5 to 19.8]). However, there was no significant intergroup difference in the late follicular quality of life (68.3 vs. 67.3, 1.9 [− 4.4 to 8.1]).
The ICBT could reduce the symptom severity of women suffering from PMS while improving their perimenstrual quality of life. However, it had no significant effect on the late follicular quality of life. Therefore, this intervention can be used for women with PMS.
Trial registration The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, Identifier: IRCT20100414003706N34, Registered prospectively on 19 June 2019, https://www.irct.ir/trial/38394.
Although relationships between exposure to air pollution and reproductive health are broadly studied, mechanisms behind these phenomena are still unknown. The aim of the study was to assess whether exposure to particulate matter (PM10) and tobacco smoking have an impact on menstrual profiles of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) and the E2/P ratio.
Levels of sex hormones were measured daily in saliva during the entire menstrual cycle among 132 healthy, urban women. Exposure to smoking (active or passive) was assessed by questionnaire, whilst exposure to PM10 with municipal monitoring data.
During the early luteal phase, profiles of E2 were elevated among women with higher versus lower exposure to PM10 (p = 0.02, post-hoc tests). Among those who were exposed versus unexposed to tobacco smoking, the levels of mean E2 measured during the entire cycle were higher (p = 0.02). The difference in mean E2 levels between the group of joint exposure (i.e. to high PM10 and passive or active smoking) versus the reference group (low PM10, no smoking) was statistically significant at p = 0.03 (18.4 vs. 12.4 pmol/l, respectively). The E2/P ratios were higher among women with higher versus lower exposure to PM10 and this difference was seen only in the early luteal phase (p = 0.01, exploratory post-hoc tests).
We found that PM10 and tobacco smoking affect ovarian hormones independently and do not interact with each other. Both exposures appear to have estrogenic effects even though women's susceptibility to these effects differs across the menstrual cycle. We propose that the hormonal mechanisms are involved in observed relationships between air pollution and smoking with women’s reproductive health.
Cellular-molecular mechanisms and factors, regulating uterus vascularization are also a focal point ensuring reproduction processes. In the process of angiogenesis endothelium expresses a number of receptors of growth factors and ligands which control main stages of the cellular makeup during vascular walls formation process. It in turn supports proliferation and reparation of the endometrium during menstrual cycle and prepares for the implantation and placentation.