Menstrual Cycle
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
Helena Bergström ◽  
Anna Lindahl ◽  
Anna Warnqvist ◽  
Ulf Diczfalusy ◽  
Lena Ekström ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Mayuu Shagawa ◽  
Sae Maruyama ◽  
Chie Sekine ◽  
Hirotake Yokota ◽  
Ryo Hirabayashi ◽  

Abstract Background One risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may be fluctuations in female hormones. This study examined variability in joint laxity, as a risk factor for ACL injury, during the menstrual cycle. Methods Subjects were 15 female university students with regular menstrual cycles. We measured estradiol (E2) concentration, anterior knee laxity (AKL), stiffness, genu recurvatum (GR), and general joint laxity (GJL) during the late follicular and ovulatory phases. AKL was measured as anterior tibial displacement of the femur after application of 44-, 89-, and 133-N loads on the tibia. Stiffness was calculated as Δforce/Δdisplacement at loads of 44–89 N and between 89 and 133 N. GR was measured prone, with the base of the patella distal to the edge of the bed. The University of Tokyo joint laxity test was used to evaluate GJL. Results E2 concentration was significantly higher in the ovulatory phase than in the late follicular phase (p = 0.018), AKL and stiffness did not differ significantly between phases, and GR and GJL were significantly higher in the ovulatory phase than in the late follicular phase (p = 0.011, 0.031). Conclusion These findings suggest that E2 concentrations may affect GR and GJL during the menstrual cycle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maissa Kacem ◽  
Rihab Borji ◽  
Sonia Sahli ◽  
Haithem Rebai

This study explored the fatigue effect on postural control (PC) across menstrual cycle phases (MCPs) in female athletes. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC), the center of pressure sway area (CoParea), CoP length in the medio-lateral (CoPLX) and antero-posterior (CoPLY) directions, and Y-balance test (YBT) were assessed before and after a fatiguing exercise during the follicular phase (FP), mid-luteal phase (LP), and premenstrual phase (PMP). Baseline normalized reach distances (NRDs) for the YBT were lower (p = 0.00) in the PMP compared to others MCPs, but the IMVC, CoParea, CoPLX, and CoPLY remained unchanged. After exercise, the IMVC and the NRD decrease was higher at PMP compared to FP (p = 0.00) and LP (p = 0.00). The CoParea, CoPLX, and CoPLY increase was higher in the PMP compared to FP (p = 0.00) and LP (p = 0.00). It was concluded that there is an accentuated PC impairment after exercise observed at PMP.

2021 ◽  
pp. 94-100
E. I. Manukhina ◽  
M. A. Gevorkyan ◽  
I. R. Safaryan

Introduction. About 10–20% of patients among women of reproductive age suffer from signs and symptoms of androgen excess in hyperandrogenism. Its skin symptoms may include hirsutism, acne, seborrhea and alopecia.Aim. To assess the effect of cyproterone acetate on skin symptoms of hyperandrogenism and improvement in the patients’ quality of life after treatment.Materials and methods. The study included 120 patients with skin symptoms of hyperandrogenism. The patients ranged in age from 18 to 35 years. The inclusion criteria were the main complaints of the patients as follows: acne, hirsutism and alopecia. The patients underwent a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. The drug of choice for the treatment of androgendependent dermatopathies was cyproterone acetate at a dose of 50–100 mg daily.Results and discussion. All patients were divided into three groups: 44 (37%) patients with hirsutism, 55 (53%) with acne, 12 (10%) with alopecia. Moreover, 32 (27%) patients had a mix of symptoms at the same time. Such patients were assigned to one of the groups depending on the predominant complaint. All patients were prescribed cyproterone acetate at a dose of 50-100 mg once daily, depending on the severity of symptoms from day 1 to day 10 of the menstrual cycle, and 54 (52%) patients were prescribed cyproterone acetate 20 mg and ethinyl estradiol 35 mg from day 1 to day 21 of the menstrual cycle. The study showed stabilization of the psychoemotional state, relief of anxiety, depressive disorders, enhancement of self-esteem and sociability, and improvement of the quality of life in its various manifestations in the majority of patients after the treatment.Сonclusion. When assessed using the dermatology life quality index questionnaires, all patients reported the stabilization of the psychoemotional state and the improvement in the quality of life after the treatment. The anxiety and depressive disorders decreased in 109 (91%) patients, which favourably influenced various areas of quality of life, enhanced self-esteem and sociability with a positive effect on personal relationships.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Gabrielle E. W. Giersch ◽  
Nisha Charkoudian ◽  
Margaret C. Morrissey ◽  
Cody R. Butler ◽  
Abigail T. Colburn ◽  

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between volume regulatory biomarkers and the estrogen to progesterone ratio (E:P) prior to and following varying methods and degrees of dehydration. Ten women (20 ± 1 year, 56.98 ± 7.25 kg, 164 ± 6 cm, 39.59 ± 2.96 mL•kg•min−1) completed four intermittent exercise trials (1.5 h, 33.8 ± 1.3°C, 49.5 ± 4.3% relative humidity). Testing took place in two hydration conditions, dehydrated via 24-h fluid restriction (Dehy, USG > 1.020) and euhydrated (Euhy, USG ≤ 1.020), and in two phases of the menstrual cycle, the late follicular phase (days 10–13) and midluteal phase (days 18–22). Change in body mass (%BMΔ), serum copeptin concentration, and plasma osmolality (Posm) were assessed before and after both dehydration stimuli (24-h fluid restriction and exercise heat stress). Serum estrogen and progesterone were analyzed pre-exercise only. Estrogen concentration did not differ between phases or hydration conditions. Progesterone was significantly elevated in luteal compared to follicular in both hydration conditions (Dehy—follicular: 1.156 ± 0.31, luteal: 5.190 ± 1.56 ng•mL−1, P < 0.05; Euhy—follicular: 0.915 ± 0.18, luteal: 4.498 ± 1.38 ng·mL−1, P < 0.05). As expected, E:P was significantly greater in the follicular phase compared to luteal in both hydration conditions (Dehy—F:138.94 ± 89.59, L: 64.22 ± 84.55, P < 0.01; Euhy—F:158.13 ± 70.15, L: 50.98 ± 39.69, P < 0.01, [all •103]). Copeptin concentration was increased following 24-h fluid restriction and exercise heat stress (mean change: 18 ± 9.4, P < 0.01). We observed a possible relationship of lower E:P and higher copeptin concentration following 24-h fluid restriction (r = −0.35, P = 0.054). While these results did not reach the level of statistical significance, these data suggest that the differing E:P ratio may alter fluid volume regulation during low levels of dehydration but have no apparent impact after dehydrating exercise in the heat.

Marziyeh Sajadian ◽  
Hamid Jalilvand ◽  
Ali Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Behdad Pourdad ◽  
Maryam Sajadian ◽  

Background and Aim: Auditory-verbal mem­ory (AVM) is the ability to learn, retain, and recall syllables and words. Memory has a strong relationship with the nervous and endocrine systems in humans. Changes in estrogen levels occur naturally at short (menstrual period) and long (pregnancy, menopause, and maturity) peri­ods. Changes in estrogen levels are likely to affect memory function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hormone fluctuations on the AVM of women. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a pretest/posttest design was conducted on 25 women aged 40−49 years with normal hearing and normal menstrual cycles of 28 ± 4 days, who were selected using a convenience sampling method. They were evaluated using two Persian versions of Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This test was performed twice and at two different menstrual periods (2-5 and 14−16 days). Results: A significant correlation was observed between the mean of total recall score, recall score after interference, and delayed recall score at two different periods (p < 0.01). The scores of women in three areas on days 14−16 of the menstrual cycle were higher than on days 2−5. Conclusion: Women’s RAVLT scores on days 14−16 of the menstrual cycle are higher than on days 2−5, indicating the effect of hormonal fluc­tuations on their AVM function. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the changes in women’s AVM in different days of the menstrual cycle. Keywords: Auditory-verbal working memory; Rey learning test; menstrual cycle  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11039
Bernadett Nagy ◽  
Júlia Szekeres-Barthó ◽  
Gábor L. Kovács ◽  
Endre Sulyok ◽  
Bálint Farkas ◽  

The most recent studies of progesterone research provide remarkable insights into the physiological role and clinical importance of this hormone. Although the name progesterone itself means “promoting gestation”, this steroid hormone is far more than a gestational agent. Progesterone is recognized as a key physiological component of not only the menstrual cycle and pregnancy but also as an essential steroidogenic precursor of other gonadal and non-gonadal hormones such as aldosterone, cortisol, estradiol, and testosterone. Based on current findings, progesterone and novel progesterone-based drugs have many important functions, including contraception, treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, immune response, and prevention of cancer. Considering the above, reproduction and life are not possible without progesterone; thus, a better understanding of this essential molecule could enable safe and effective use of this hormone in many clinical conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Jasmine G. Warren ◽  
Victoria M. Fallon ◽  
Laura Goodwin ◽  
Suzanne H. Gage ◽  
Abigail K. Rose

Women may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol harm, but many current theories fail to acknowledge the unique factors that influence female alcohol use. The biological mechanisms underlying female alcohol consumption have largely been unexplored, although recently the menstrual cycle has been highlighted as a potentially important factor. This systematic review, using a narrative synthesis, examined the association between the menstrual cycle phases on alcohol consumption and aimed to determine whether hormonal contraception influences this association. The review follows PRISMA and SWiM guidelines, registration number: CRD42018112744. Electronic searches were conducted in the relevant databases with keyword (e.g., “menstrua*”; “alcohol”). Thousand six hundred and sixty-two titles were identified, 16 of which were included in the review. Results were inconsistent regarding whether an association between menstrual cycle phase and alcohol consumption was found. Furthermore, there was inconsistency regarding which phase was associated with higher consumption, and different factors were reported to have moderated the direction, e.g., family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These conflicting results may be partly explained by variability in both study quality and design, and differences in measurement of cycle phase and alcohol consumption. More robust research is needed before conclusions can be drawn with regard to the role of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception on female drinking behavior. This review provides recommendations to strengthen research in this area.

Menopause ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Samar R. El Khoudary ◽  
Meiyuzhen Qi ◽  
Xirun Chen ◽  
Karen Matthews ◽  
Amanda A. Allshouse ◽  

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