psychological effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Narjes Shojaati ◽  
Nathaniel D. Osgood

Opioids have been shown to temporarily reduce the severity of pain when prescribed for medical purposes. However, opioid analgesics can also lead to severe adverse physical and psychological effects or even death through misuse, abuse, short- or long-term addiction, and one-time or recurrent overdose. Dynamic computational models and simulations can offer great potential to interpret the complex interaction of the drivers of the opioid crisis and assess intervention strategies. This study surveys existing studies of dynamic computational models and simulations addressing the opioid crisis and provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of dynamic computational models and simulations of the opioid crisis. This review gives a detailed analysis of existing modeling techniques, model conceptualization and formulation, and the policy interventions they suggest. It also explores the data sources they used and the study population they represented. Based on this analysis, direction and opportunities for future dynamic computational models for addressing the opioid crisis are suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Krishna Parekh ◽  
Hannah Debra Kravets ◽  
Rebecca Spiegel

Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) fail to prevent seizure recurrence in more than 30% of patients with epilepsy. The treatment is more difficult in premenopausal women with epilepsy (WWE) because changes in plasma estrogen and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle often affect seizure frequency and intensity. Interactions between enzyme-inducin ASMs and hormonal contraceptives can lead to both a loss of seizure control and failure of contraception. Significant changes in the function of the liver and kidneys during pregnancy can accelerate metabolism and elimination of ASMs, causing breakthrough seizures. In addition, the teratogenic, cognitive, and psychological effects of ASMs on potential offspring have to be considered when choosing the best ASM regimen. Therefore, aspecialized approach is necessary for the treatment of premenopausal WWE.

Sertaç Güngör ◽  
Fatma Bütüner

Covid-19, which affects the whole world and is accepted as a pandemic by the world health organization, caused millions of people to die. The elderly are in the group with the highest risk of losing their lives due to the Covid-19 virus. Stricter restrictive / protective measures have been taken for the elderly in Turkey, as in the whole world. With this research, it is aimed to evaluate the sociological and psychological effects of the "elderly", who are one of the health risk groups of the society, in terms of landscape architecture, during the pandemic days when they had to experience various problems after the outbreak. In the study, face-to-face and online questionnaires were applied to individuals aged 50 and over on a voluntary basis. As a result of the study, it was determined that the implementation of curfews and restrictions for the elderly and the formation of an isolated lifestyle from other age groups caused an increase in loneliness and anxiety levels and negative psychological effects. It has been revealed that the activities that individuals will carry out in the green area, their conversations and socializing with their peers, and walks in the open area have a positive psychological and sociological effect for the elderly. It has been determined that the elderly who become lonely and depressed at home with the restrictions imposed under pandemic conditions want to be in green areas. The sociological and psychological positive effects of being in green areas and spending time, and the changes in the behaviour and emotions of the elderly who have pandemic restrictions paralleled the response of the participants to the questionnaire.

Spectrum ◽  
2022 ◽  
Julia Stanski

This paper examines the portrayal of travel for women in two eighteenth-century literary texts by women writers: The Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcliffe and The Turkish Embassy Letters by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. With a focus on the mental, emotional, and psychological effects of female travel that each author depicts, it analyzes both the dramatic dangers and pleasures faced by Radcliffe’s Gothic heroine and the more mild, cerebral ones experienced by the historical Montagu. Drawing on the work of Marianna D’Ezio, Adam Watkins, and Mary Jo Kietzman, it argues that both Radcliffe and Montagu ultimately endorsed the idea of travel for women through their work, portraying the pleasure, experience, and self-cultivation it afforded as outweighing its dangers. Finally, it posits that this position resisted both Enlightenment and Romantic ideas of appropriate female behaviours and desires by encouraging women readers to experience the world outside of the domestic sphere.

2022 ◽  
Vasfiye Bayram Değer

COVID-19, the viral pneumonia seen in China towards the end of 2019, was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 since it spread almost all over the world. While such pandemic situations that are concerned with public health cause a sense of insecurity, confusion, loneliness and stigmatization among individuals, it can result in economic losses, closure of workplaces and schools, insufficient resources for medical needs and inadequate satisfaction of needs in societies. The economic crisis, which is one of the most important problems in pandemic periods, and the concomitant uncertainties can also cause suicidal thoughts. As a result, how the society responds psychologically during epidemics has an important role in shaping the spread of the disease, emotional difficulties and social problems during and after the epidemic. It often appears that no resources are allocated to manage, or at least mitigate the effects of epidemics on psychological health and well-being. In the acute phase of the epidemic, health system administrators prioritize testing, preventing contagion and providing patient care, but psychological needs should not be disregarded either.

2022 ◽  
pp. 274-287
Úrsula Vacalebri Lloret

COVID-19 has altered the mental health of the global population. The fear of getting sick, combined with other factors from a healthcare crisis—fear of losing loved ones, social isolation, unemployment, uncertainty about the future, etc.—have created the perfect environment for a greater development of psychological health disorders. All sectors of society are being affected by these changes, including above all, college students. The aim of this chapter is to observe the specific disorders college students may develop and what teachers can do about them. A language exchange project will be proposed as an integrated and preventive tool. It will also constitute a resource for eventual mental health disorders management. The combination of these two realities—mental health and education—should work as the basis for further investigation on integrated projects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The purpose of this study is to provide insight as to how infrastructure countermeasures awareness training will impact individuals dealing with a nationwide catastrophic cyber-attack. Can this awareness training lessen the psychological effect of an attack? This study showed no value for this type of training. Reading about such an attack, the subjects had lower technical optimism and cyber self-efficacy. Reading about infrastructure countermeasures, before or after reading about a cyber-attack, did not improve or maintain the subjects’ optimism and self-efficacy. A possible explanation is that emotional arousal may override or block rational thinking. Another explanation may be that a nationwide attack is towards the infrastructure and not the personal computer. Here the individual lacks any control. Future research needs to look at personal preparation and response training to see if it will help the psychological effects of a catastrophic cyber-attack.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 35-46
Ga-young Lee ◽  
Ji-hee Baik ◽  
Ki-wan An ◽  
Jeong-won Seo ◽  
Sugwang Lee ◽  

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