formation process
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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Hongmei Xu ◽  
Hyunhyuk Tae ◽  
Nam-Joon Cho ◽  
Changjin Huang ◽  
K. Jimmy Hsia

The solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method provides a simple and efficient, microfluidic-based strategy to fabricate supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) with rich compositional diversity on a wide range of solid supports. While various studies have been performed to characterize SLBs formed using the SALB method, relatively limited work has been carried out to understand the underlying mechanisms of SALB formation under various experimental conditions. Through thermodynamic modeling, we studied the experimental parameters that affect the SALB formation process, including substrate surface properties, initial lipid concentration, and temperature. It was found that all the parameters are critically important to successfully form high-quality SLBs. The model also helps to identify the range of parameter space within which conformal, homogeneous SLBs can be fabricated, and provides mechanistic guidance to optimize experimental conditions for lipid membrane-related applications.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Guancheng Lu ◽  
Chao Ge ◽  
Zhenyang Liu ◽  
Le Tang ◽  
Haifu Wang

The formation process of reactive materials shaped charge is investigated by X-ray photographs and numerical simulation. In order to study the formation process, a trans-scale discretization method is proposed. A two-dimensional finite element model of shaped charge and reactive material liner is established and the jet formation process, granule size difference induced particle dispersion and granule distribution induced jet particle distribution are analyzed based on Autodyn-2D platform and Euler solver. The result shows that, under shock loading of shaped charge, the Al particle content decreases from the end to the tip of the jet, and increases as the particle size decreases. Besides, the quantity of Al particles at the bottom part of the liner has more prominent influence on the jet head density than that in the other parts, and the Al particle content in the high-speed section of jet shows inversely proportional relationship to the ratio of the particle quantity in the top area to that in the bottom area of liner.

Tungsten ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jacob A. R. Wright

AbstractTungsten will be used as the plasma-facing divertor material in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) fusion reactor. Under high temperatures and high ion fluxes, a ‘fuzz’ nanostructure forms on the tungsten surface with dramatically different properties and could contaminate the plasma. Although simulations and experimental observations have provided understanding of the initial fuzz formation process, there is debate over whether tungsten or helium migration is rate-limiting during late-stage growth, and the mechanisms by which tungsten and helium migrations occur. Here, the proposed mechanisms are considered in turn. It is concluded that tungsten migration occurs by adatom diffusion along the fuzz surface. Continual helium migration through the porous fuzz to the tungsten bulk is also required for fuzz growth, for continued bubble growth and rupture. Helium likely migrates due to ballistic penetration, although diffusion may contribute. It is difficult to determine the limiting process, which may switch from helium penetration to tungsten adatom diffusion above a threshold flux. Areas for further research to clarify the mechanisms are then considered. A greater understanding of the fuzz formation mechanism is key to the successful design of plasma-facing tungsten components, and may have applications in forming porous tungsten catalysts.

2022 ◽  
pp. 26-33
V. M. Chertok ◽  
A. E. Kotsyuba ◽  
I. A. Khramova

Cellular-molecular mechanisms and factors, regulating uterus vascularization are also a focal point ensuring reproduction processes. In the process of angiogenesis endothelium expresses a number of receptors of growth factors and ligands which control main stages of the cellular makeup during vascular walls formation process. It in turn supports proliferation and reparation of the endometrium during menstrual cycle and prepares for the implantation and placentation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 54-62
Huang-Hsiang Lin ◽  
Jonathan Heinze ◽  
Alexander Croy ◽  
Rafael Gutiérrez ◽  
Gianaurelio Cuniberti

Lubricants are widely used in macroscopic mechanical systems to reduce friction and wear. However, on the microscopic scale, it is not clear to what extent lubricants are beneficial. Therefore, in this study, we consider two diamond solid-state gears at the nanoscale immersed in different lubricant molecules and perform classical MD simulations to investigate the rotational transmission of motion. We find that lubricants can help to synchronize the rotational transmission between gears regardless of the molecular species and the center-of-mass distance. Moreover, the influence of the angular velocity of the driving gear is investigated and shown to be related to the bond formation process between gears.

2022 ◽  
pp. 073168442110602
Rui Xiao ◽  
Wang Wang ◽  
Jiaqi Shi ◽  
Jun Xiao

While Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) of thermoset matrix composites are widely used in the aviation industry, there is little conclusive research on the relationship between the physical model of bonding interface formation process and the actual bonding strength between prepreg layers formed in AFP process. Although massive amounts of experimental data on prepreg tack have been achieved from existing research, engineers are unable to use these data as a decisive criterion in choosing process parameters. In this research, a prepreg layup physical model based on reptation model and viscoelastic mechanical model is built, in which the bonding interface formation process is divided into two stages, namely, diffusion and viscous stage. Layup-peeling experiments are conducted via a special designed high-speed layup experimental platform so that practical AFP process parameters can be imitated, and a logarithmic curve of layup velocity-peeling energy under different layup pressure is achieved. The slope of the logarithmic curve and the surface morphology of the sample after peeling prove the correctness of the established model. Simultaneously, the experimental data proves that when prepreg is peeled off, the transition from the cohesive failure mode to the interface failure mode occurs at the laying speed between 100 mm/s and 200 mm/s. These results can be used as a reference for choosing AFP process parameters to realize the balance between good bonding quality and harmless separation of adjacent prepreg layers.

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