fertilization rate
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Andreea Carp-Veliscu ◽  
Claudia Mehedintu ◽  
Francesca Frincu ◽  
Elvira Bratila ◽  
Simona Rasu ◽  

As the coronavirus pandemic is far from ending, more questions regarding the female reproductive system, particularly fertility issues, arise. The purpose of this paper is to bring light upon the possible link between COVID-19 and women’s reproductive health. This review emphasizes the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the hormones, endometrium and menstrual cycle, ovarian reserve, follicular fluid, oocytes, and embryos. The results showed that endometrial samples did not express SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Regarding the menstrual cycle, there is a large range of alterations, but they were all reversible within the following months. The ovarian reserve was not significantly affected in patients recovering from both mild and severe infection in most cases, except one, where the levels of AMH were significantly lower and basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were increased. All COVID-19 recovered patients had positive levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the follicular fluid. The amount of retrieved and mature oocytes and the fertilization rate were unharmed in three studies, except for one study, where the quantity of retrieved and mature oocytes was reduced in patients with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The numbers of blastocysts, top-quality embryos, and euploid embryos were affected in most of the studies reviewed.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Alvyra Slepetiene ◽  
Mykola Kochiieru ◽  
Linas Jurgutis ◽  
Audrone Mankeviciene ◽  
Aida Skersiene ◽  

The most important component of agricultural system are soils as the basis for the growth of plants, accumulation of water, plant nutrients and organic matter. The main task of our research was to ascertain changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and mobile humified carbon fractions in digestate-treated soils. We have performed three field experiments using the same design on two soil types in 2019–2020. We studied the fertilization effects of different phases of digestate on Retisol and Fluvisol. Fertilization treatments: control; separated liquid digestate 85 kg ha−1 N; and 170 kg ha−1 170 N; separated solid digestate 85 kg ha−1 N; and 170 kg ha−1 N. We have found a greater positive effect on the increase in SOC because of the use of the maximum recommended fertilization rate of the solid digestate. The content of mobile humic substances (MHS) tended to increase in grassland and crop rotation field in digestate-treated soil. In our experiment, maximum concentration of SOC was found in 0–10 cm soil layer, while in the deeper layers the amount of SOC, MHS and mobile humic acids proportionally decreased. We concluded, that long-term factors as soil type and land use strongly affected the humification level expressed as HD (%) in the soil and the highest HD was determined in the grassland soil in Fluvisol.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hsin-Ta Lin ◽  
Meng-Hsing Wu ◽  
Li-Chung Tsai ◽  
Ta-Sheng Chen ◽  
Huang-Tz Ou

This retrospective study assessed the effect of the co-administration of clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole in mild ovarian stimulation, compared to conventional regimens, among Patient-Oriented Strategies Encompassing Individualized Oocyte Number (POSEIDON) Group 4 patients. There were 114 POSEIDON Group 4 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatments with 216 stimulation cycles recruited from a Taiwan’s reproductive center during 2016-2020. Main outcomes were the numbers, quality of retrieved oocytes and embryo development. Pregnancy outcomes were assessed after embryo transfers. Per stimulation cycle, patients receiving mild stimulation with a combination of CC and letrozole (study group) versus those with COS (control group) had lower numbers of pre-ovulatory follicles (2.00 ± 1.23 vs. 2.37 ± 1.23, p=0.0066) and oocytes retrieved (1.83 ± 1.17 vs. 2.37 ± 1.23, p=0.0017), and lower follicular output rate (58.6% vs. 68.38%, p=0.0093) and mature oocyte output rate (44.29% vs. 52.88%, p=0.0386) but a higher top-quality metaphase II oocyte ratio (66.7% vs. 54.59%, p=0.0444) and a similar fertilization rate (91.67% vs. 89.04%, p=0.4660). With adjustment for significant between-group baseline differences using multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation model analyses, there was no statistical difference in oocytes retrieved and embryo development between the study and control groups, and insignificant increases in successful pregnancies in the study group were found compared to the control group (i.e., odds ratios [95% CIs]: 1.13 [0.55, 232] and 1.50 [0.65, 3.49] for ongoing pregnancy and live birth, respectively). For POSEIDON Group 4 patients, cotreatment of CC and letrozole in mild stimulation may increase the high-quality oocyte ratio and yield comparable fertilization rate and pregnancy outcomes.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Ioannis Zafeiriou ◽  
Dionisios Gasparatos ◽  
Dafni Ioannou ◽  
Dimitrios Kalderis ◽  
Ioannis Massas

Selenium biofortification of lettuce plants was studied for two rates (5 and 10 mg kg−1 soil) of either selenate or selenite and for the effect of 5% w/w biochar addition. Lettuce seedlings were grown in pots containing 1 kg of a calcareous soil. Twelve weeks later, the plants were harvested and selenium (Se), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) concentrations were determined in heads and roots. Plant growth characteristics were measured and plant biometrics were assessed by NDVI, NDRE, and SPAD measurements. The highest Se concentration of 315.19 mg kg−1 D.W. and the highest amount of Se taken up by plants (950.5 μg/pot) were observed for the low selenate rate with biochar. The corresponding values for selenite treatments were an order of magnitude lower. Although in general, minor to severe toxicity symptoms occurred with selenium application in no biochar treatments (except selenite low rate), the addition of biochar secured plant growth and increased S and P concentrations in plants, regulating Se uptake by plants at high selenite rate and allowing maximum plant uptake at the low selenate rate. To propose an appropriate Se fertilization rate, the fate of excess selenates in the soil environment should be examined and experimentation under soil conditions is necessary.

2021 ◽  
Qianhui Dou ◽  
Anton A Turanov ◽  
Marco Mariotti ◽  
Jae Yeon Hwang ◽  
Huafeng Wang ◽  

Thioredoxin/glutathione reductase (TGR, TXNRD3) is a thiol oxidoreductase of unknown function composed of thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin domains. This NADPH-dependent enzyme evolved by gene duplication within the Txnrd family, is expressed in the testes and can reduce both thioredoxin and glutathione in vitro. To characterize the function of TXNRD3 in vivo, we generated a strain of mice with the deletion of Txnrd3 gene. We show that Txnrd3 knockout mice are viable and without discernable gross phenotypes, but TXNRD3 deficiency leads to fertility impairment in male mice. Txnrd3 knockout animals exhibit a lower fertilization rate in vitro, a sperm movement phenotype and an altered redox status of thiols. Proteomic analyses revealed a broad range of substrates reduced by TXNRD3 during sperm maturation, presumably as a part of quality control. The results show that TXNRD3 plays a critical role in male reproduction via the thiol redox control of spermatogenesis.

Xiaoyu Xu ◽  
Wanqiong Li ◽  
Lina Zhang ◽  
Yazhong Ji ◽  
Jiaying Qin ◽  

Although sperm preservation is a common means of personal fertility preservation, its effects on embryonic development potential need further investigation. The purpose of this study was to identify key microRNA (miRNA) in cryopreserved sperm and determine the changes of these miRNAs and their target genes during embryonic development using cryopreserved sperm. Moreover, the embryonic development potential of cryopreserved sperm was estimated in assisted reproductive technology (ART), where key miRNAs and target genes were validated in sperm and subsequent embryos. Clinical data of embryonic development from cryopreserved sperm indicated a significant decrease in fertilization rate in both in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cases, as well as a reduction in blastocyst formation rate in ICSI cases. Meanwhile there was a significant increase in blocked embryo ratio of Day1, Day2, and Day3.5 embryos when frozen-thawed mouse sperm was used, compared with fresh mouse sperm, suggesting a potential negative effect of sperm cryopreservation on embryonic development. From frozen-thawed and fresh sperm in humans and mice, respectively, 21 and 95 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) were detected. miR-148b-3p were downregulated in both human and mouse frozen-thawed sperm and were also decreased in embryos after fertilization using cryopreserved sperm. Target genes of miR-148b-3p, Pten, was identified in mouse embryos using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). In addition, common characters of cryopreservation of mouse oocytes compared with sperm were also detected; downregulation of miR-148b-3p was also confirmed in cryopreserved oocytes. In summary, our study suggested that cryopreservation of sperm could change the expression of miRNAs, especially the miR-148b-3p across humans and mice, and may further affect fertilization and embryo development by increasing the expression of Pten. Moreover, downregulation of miR-148b-3p induced by cryopreservation was conserved in mouse gametes.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12592
Jialin Hu ◽  
Jonathan D. Richwine ◽  
Patrick D. Keyser ◽  
Lidong Li ◽  
Fei Yao ◽  

Background Fertilizer addition can contribute to nitrogen (N) losses from soil by affecting microbial populations responsible for nitrification. However, the effects of N fertilization on ammonia oxidizing bacteria under C4 perennial grasses in nutrient-poor grasslands are not well studied. Methods In this study, a field experiment was used to assess the effects of N fertilization rate (0, 67, and 202 kg N ha−1) and grass species (switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)) on ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) communities in C4 grassland soils using quantitative PCR, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and high-throughput amplicon sequencing of amoA genes. Results Nitrosospira were dominant AOB in the C4 grassland soil throughout the growing season. N fertilization rate had a stronger influence on AOB community composition than C4 grass species. Elevated N fertilizer application increased the abundance, activity, and alpha-diversity of AOB communities as well as nitrification potential, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and soil acidity. The abundance and species richness of AOB were higher under switchgrass compared to big bluestem. Soil pH, nitrate, nitrification potential, and N2O emission were significantly related to the variability in AOB community structures (p < 0.05).

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (B) ◽  
pp. 1745-1750
Maanee Azzam ◽  
Adeela Hamood ◽  
Hind Abdulkadim

Background: Follicular fluid considered as an important microenvironment for oocyte development, cell free-DNA (cfDNA) fragments that are found in this fluid and are released from cell apoptosis and/or necrosis, aimed to quantified the level of cf-DNA, in the follicular fluid and to assess any relation between the level of cf-DNA in this fluid with women’s age, duration of infertility, cause of infertility, her ovarian reserve values. Methods: Eighty-nine women were prospectively included in this study FF cf-DNA which was determined by conventional real time PCR-syber green detection approach which quantified by ALU-specific primers. Results: cell-free DNA (cfDNA) level in Follicular fluid samples of Iraqi women level was; cfDNA (Mean±SD, 0.916±0.106 ng/μl). there was no significant relation between cfDNA and pregnancy outcome, but very low level and very high level cf DNA were related to negative pregnancy outcome, cfDNA was second most important predictive factor of pregnancy outcome after fertilization rate, but both not statistically significant p value was (0.622 and 0.241) respectively. Conclusion: current study notice that cfDNA in the follicular fluid may mainly reflect the cellular activity and the balance between programed apoptosis and cell necrosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  
YaLing Xiao ◽  
ZhengYi Sun ◽  
JingRan Zhen ◽  
Qi Yu

Findings regarding the relationship between smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters (SERCs) in oocytes and blastocyst development have been conflicting. In this study, the effects of SERCs on blastocyst quality and the speed of blastocyst development were evaluated. Patients who received intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) at our reproductive center from 2016 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. SERC (+) oocytes (n = 217) and SERC (–) oocytes (n = 822), as well as SERC (+) cycles (n = 146) and SERC (–) cycles (n = 1,951) were compared. There was no significant difference in embryological, clinical, and neonatal outcomes between the SERC (+) and SERC (–) cycles. The fertilization rate (73.9%), good quality blastocyst rate (26.7%) and the speed of blastocyst development (44.4%) were significantly lower (P &lt; 0.05) in SERC (+) oocytes than in unaffected counterparts (86.2%, 44.1% and 63.4%, respectively). Furthermore, the proportion of blastocysts with trophectoderm (TE) grade C was significantly higher in the SERC (+) oocyte group than in the SERC (–) oocyte group (73.3 vs. 55.9%, P &lt; 0.05). After adjusting for age, years of infertility, endometriosis, stimulation protocols (GnRHa), and male infertility, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of SERCs in the oocytes significantly affected the speed of blastocyst development (odds ratio, 2.812; 95% CI, 1.257–6.292; P = 0.012). These findings suggest that the presence of SERCs in oocytes may negatively affect blastocyst quality and the speed of blastocyst development.

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