interspecific variability
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2022 ◽  
Marco Regolini

Every adult male of the little roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is always and invariably comprised of exactly 1031 somatic cells, not one more, not one less; and so it is for the adult hermaphrodite (959 somatic cells); its intestine founder cell (the ‘E’ blastomere), if isolated and cultured, undergoes the same number of divisions as in the whole embryo (Robertson et al., 2014); the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster executes 13 cycles of asynchronous cell divisions without cellularization: how are these numbers counted? Artificial Intelligence (First and Second Order Logic, Knowledge graph Engineering) infers that, to perform precise stereotypical numbers of asynchronous cell divisions, a nucleic (genomic) counter is indispensable. Made up of tandemly repeated similar monomers, satellite DNA (satDNA) corresponds to iterable objects used in programming. The purpose of this article is to show how satDNA sequences can be iterated over to count a deterministic number of cell divisions: computational models (attached for free download) are introduced that handle DNA repeated sequences as iterable counters and simulate their use in cells through an epigenetic marker (cytosine methylation) as an iterator. SatDNA, because of its propensity to remodel its structure, can also operate as a strong accelerator in the evolution of complex organs and provides a basis to control interspecific variability of shapes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Victor Burte ◽  
Guy Perez ◽  
Faten Ayed ◽  
Géraldine Groussier ◽  
Ludovic Mailleret ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. 560-568
CG Makouanzi Ekomono ◽  
CBSV Loubassou ◽  
MP Mbama ◽  
GJ Loubota Panzou ◽  
P Vigneron

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2294
Juan M. González ◽  
Rodrigo Cañas ◽  
Alejandra Cabeza ◽  
Magdalena Ruiz ◽  
Patricia Giraldo ◽  

We analysed nine traits of the root system of 223 genotypes of Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = AABB) subspecies dicoccoides, dicoccum, turgidum, durum and polonicum, finding a large intra and interspecific variability in both the number and size of roots, as well as in their spatial distribution. We studied the presence of an incomplete MITE (Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Element) inserted in the TtDro1B gene, which is present in some genotypes of dicoccoides, dicoccum, and turgidum, but not in polonicum and the 97.9% of the durum accessions. Comparison between genotypes shows that genotypes with the MITE element have smaller and shallower roots. Since Aegilops is considered to be the donor of the wheat B genome, the presence of the same MITE element was analysed in 55 accessions of the species Aegilops speltoides, searsii, bicornis and longissima, and in no case was it detected. We propose that after the emergence of T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides, the insertion of the MITE element probably occurred in a single plant. Subsequent domestication resulted in genotypes of dicoccum with and without the MITE element, which after selection gave rise to the subspecies turgidum, and durum and polonicum, respectively. The MITE element can be used to differentiate turgidum from the durum and polonicum with high reliability.

2021 ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Xiang Liu ◽  
Shurong Zhou ◽  
Bill Shipley

Abstract Aims While recent studies have shown the importance of intraspecific trait variation in the processes of community assembly, we still know little about the contributions of intraspecific trait variability to ecosystem functions. Methods Here, we conducted a functional group removal experiment in an alpine meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over four years to investigate the relative importance of inter- and intra-specific variability in plant height for productivity. We split total variability in plant height within each of 75 manipulated communities into interspecific variability (TVinter) and intraspecific variability within a community (ITVwithin). Community weighted mean height among communities was decomposed into fixed community weighted mean (CWMfixed) and intraspecific variability among communities (ITVamong). We constructed a series of generalized additive mixed models and piecewise structural equation modelling to determine how trait variability (i.e., TVinter, ITVwithin, CWMfixed and ITVamong) indirectly mediated the changes in productivity in response to functional group removal. Important Findings Community productivity was not only affected directly by treatment manipulations, but also increased with both inter- and intra-specific variability (i.e., CWMfixed, ITVamong) in plant height indirectly. This suggests that both the “selection effect” and a “shade-avoidance syndrome” can incur higher CWMfixed and ITVamong, and may simultaneously operate to regulate productivity. Our findings provide new evidence that, besides interspecific variability, intraspecific trait variability in plant height also plays a role in maintaining net primary productivity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Claudio D’Iglio ◽  
Marco Albano ◽  
Sergio Famulari ◽  
Serena Savoca ◽  
Giuseppe Panarello ◽  

AbstractOtolith features are useful tools for studying taxonomy, ecology, paleontology, and fish biology since they represent a permanent record of life history. Nevertheless, the functional morphology of otoliths remains an open research question that is useful to completely understand their eco-morphology. This study aims to deepen the knowledge of intra- and interspecific variation in sagitta morphology in three congeneric seabreams, to understand how such variability could be related to the lifestyles of each species. Therefore, the sagittae (n = 161) of 24 Pagellus bogaraveo, 24 Pagellus acarne, and 37 Pagellus erythrinus specimens, collected from the south Tyrrhenian Sea, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and a stereomicroscope to assess morphometric features, variability between otolith pairs and the external crystalline structure the of sulcus acusticus. Statistical analysis demonstrated that, between the species, variability in sagittal otolith rostral length growth and sulcus acusticus features, correlated with increased fish total length and body weight. Moreover, slight differences between otolith pairs were detected in P. acarne and P. erythrinus (P < 0.05). The results confirm changes in otolith morphometry and morphology between different congeneric species and populations of the same species from different habitats.

2021 ◽  
Vol 288 (1953) ◽  
pp. 20210428
Staffan Jacob ◽  
Delphine Legrand

Intra- and interspecific variability can both ensure ecosystem functions. Generalizing the effects of individual and species assemblages requires understanding how much within and between species trait variation is genetically based or results from phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity can indeed lead to rapid and important changes of trait distributions, and in turn community functionality, depending on environmental conditions, which raises a crucial question: could phenotypic plasticity modify the relative importance of intra- and interspecific variability along environmental gradients? We quantified the fundamental niche of five genotypes in monocultures for each of five ciliate species along a wide thermal gradient in standardized conditions to assess the importance of phenotypic plasticity for the level of intraspecific variability compared to differences between species. We showed that phenotypic plasticity strongly influences trait variability and reverses the relative extent of intra- and interspecific variability along the thermal gradient. Our results show that phenotypic plasticity may lead to either increase or decrease of functional trait variability along environmental gradients, making intra- and interspecific variability highly dynamic components of ecological systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Hira Bashir ◽  
Jie Chen ◽  
Sana Jabeen ◽  
Sadiq Ullah ◽  
Junaid Khan ◽  

AbstractIn a recent revision of the genus Agaricus, A. section Xanthodermatei was split into two sections A. sect. Hondenses and A. sect. Xanthodermatei. Our objectives were to investigate the species diversity of both sections in Pakistan and to give an overview of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined nucLSU, ITS and TEF1 dataset from 35 specimens of both sections revealed three major clades. Analyses based on ITS dataset and 106 specimens, including 33 from Pakistan, reveal eight new species and one new record species. These nine species are described in detail. It is noteworthy that intraspecific variability as well as interspecific variability between closely related species were very low in ITS sequences in many cases. In the case of the two new species A.xanthochromaticus and A.griseovariegatus, TEF1 sequence data were much more efficient than ITS to distinguish these species from each other. The other new species are A.atroumbonatus, A.fumidicolor, A.macropeplus, A.parviniveus, A.swaticus and A.bambusetorum. The latter is the only new species of A. sect. Hondenses in which it is morphologically atypical and also the unique (sub)tropical species. Agaricusgregariomyces is recorded for the first time in Pakistan. In addition, brief descriptions are provided not only for A.bisporiticus, A.endoxanthus and A.punjabensis, which are reported again in Pakistan, but also for A.californicus, which is reported for the first time in Spain and outside North America. In total 12 species of both sections were reported in Pakistan and half of them were from subtropical climatic areas, underlining the contribution of the climatic diversity to the high species richness in this country.

2021 ◽  
Joany Mariño ◽  
Suzanne C Dufour ◽  
Amy Hurford ◽  
Charlotte Récapet

Animals show a vast array of phenotypic traits in time and space. These variation patterns have traditionally been described as ecogeographical rules; for example, the tendency of size and clutch size to increase with latitude (Bergman's and Lack's rules, respectively). Despite considerable research into these patterns, the processes behind trait variation remain controversial. Here, we show how food variability, which determines individual energy input and allocation trade-offs, can drive interspecific trait variation. Using a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, we simulated different food environments as well as interspecific variability in the parameters for energy assimilation, mobilization, and allocation to soma. We found that interspecific variability is greater when the resource is non-limiting in both constant and seasonal environments. Our findings further show that individuals can reach larger biomass and greater reproductive output in a seasonal environment than in a constant environment of equal average resource due to the peaks of food surplus. Our results agree with the classical patterns of interspecific trait variation and provide a mechanistic understanding that supports recent hypotheses which explain them: the resource and the eNPP (net primary production during the growing season) rules. Due to the current alterations to ecosystems and communities, disentangling trait variation is increasingly important to understand and predict biodiversity dynamics under environmental change.

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