somatic cells
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2022 ◽  
Marco Regolini

Every adult male of the little roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is always and invariably comprised of exactly 1031 somatic cells, not one more, not one less; and so it is for the adult hermaphrodite (959 somatic cells); its intestine founder cell (the ‘E’ blastomere), if isolated and cultured, undergoes the same number of divisions as in the whole embryo (Robertson et al., 2014); the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster executes 13 cycles of asynchronous cell divisions without cellularization: how are these numbers counted? Artificial Intelligence (First and Second Order Logic, Knowledge graph Engineering) infers that, to perform precise stereotypical numbers of asynchronous cell divisions, a nucleic (genomic) counter is indispensable. Made up of tandemly repeated similar monomers, satellite DNA (satDNA) corresponds to iterable objects used in programming. The purpose of this article is to show how satDNA sequences can be iterated over to count a deterministic number of cell divisions: computational models (attached for free download) are introduced that handle DNA repeated sequences as iterable counters and simulate their use in cells through an epigenetic marker (cytosine methylation) as an iterator. SatDNA, because of its propensity to remodel its structure, can also operate as a strong accelerator in the evolution of complex organs and provides a basis to control interspecific variability of shapes.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Mohamed Elhiti ◽  
Claudio Stasolla

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an in vitro biological process in which bipolar structures (somatic embryos) can be induced to form from somatic cells and regenerate into whole plants. Acquisition of the embryogenic potential in culture is initiated when some competent cells within the explants respond to inductive signals (mostly plant growth regulators, PRGs), and de-differentiate into embryogenic cells. Such cells, “canalized” into the embryogenic developmental pathway, are able to generate embryos comparable in structure and physiology to their in vivo counterparts. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have identified several pathways governing the initial stages of the embryogenic process. In this review, the authors emphasize the importance of the developmental signals required for the progression of embryo development, starting with the de-differentiation of somatic cells and culminating with tissue patterning during the formation of the embryo body. The action and interaction of PGRs are highlighted, along with the participation of master regulators, mostly transcription factors (TFs), and proteins involved in stress responses and the signal transduction required for the initiation of the embryogenic process.

Radmila Capkova Frydrychova

Telomerase activity and telomere restoration in certain somatic cells of human adults maintain the proliferative capacity of these cells and contribute to their regenerative potential, and telomerase activity and telomere length are commonly considered lifespan predictors. Eusocial insects provide excellent model systems for aging research based on their extraordinary caste-related lifespan differences that contradict the typical fecundity/lifespan trade-off. In agreement with the common presumption, telomerase activity is upregulated in the reproductive, long-lived individuals of eusocial insects such as queens and kings, proposing that telomerase activity acts as a key factor in their extended longevity. But, as documented by the presence of telomerase in somatic tissues of numerous invertebrate and vertebrate species, the connection between telomerase activity and the predicted lifespan is not clear. Here, I ask whether somatic telomerase activity in eusocial reproductives may serve its non-canonical function to protect its individuals against the exacerbated metabolic stress upon reproduction and be a reflection of a more common phenomenon among species. I propose a hypothesis that the presence of telomerase activity in somatic cells reflects a different reproduction strategy of the species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (24) ◽  
pp. 147-151
Zilda Cristiani Gazim ◽  
Orlando Seiko Takemura ◽  
Luiz Cláudio Monteiro da Silva ◽  
Carlos Massambani ◽  
Roberson Eduardo Moraes ◽  

The present paper presents the results of homeopathic treatment of 25 Holstein breed cows aged 3 to 8 years old diagnosed with subclinical mastitis through California Mastitis Test (CMT). Animals were divided into 3 groups according with infection level. A homeopathic complex was developed on the grounds of clinical aspects, including Phosphorus 30x, Phytolacca 30x, Silicea 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x and biotherapic of Staphylococcus aureus 200x. The remedy was added to salt and was administered to cattle 100g/cow/day for 75 days. CMT were carried out every 2 weeks to control incidence and severity of mastitis; somatic cells count (SCC) was performed at the beginning and the end of treatment. CMT showed significant improvement in regression of infection level all throughout the study; final SCC showed decrease in 82% of animals, signaling thus efficacy of the homeopathic treatment. Keywords:  Subclinical mastitis; Dairy cows; Homeopathy; California Mastitis Test, Somatic Cells Count.   Estudo preliminar do tratamento homeopático da mastite subclínica avaliado por contagem de células somáticas (SCC) e California Mastitis Test (CMT) Resumo Este artigo apresenta os resultados do tratamento homeopático de 25 vacas raça Holstein entre 3 e 8 anos de idade diagnosticadas com mastite subclínica através do California Mastitis Test (CMT). Os animais foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o nível da infecção. Foi preparado um complexo homeopático com base nos achados clínicos, composto de: Phosphorus 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x s 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x e bioterápico de Staphylococcus aureus 200x. O complexo foi acrescentado no sal e administrado na dose de 100g/vaca/dia. O CMT foi realizado a cada 2 semanas a fim de monitorar a incidéncia e gravidade da mastitie; a contagem de células somáticas (SCC) foi realizada ao início e no final do tratamento. Os valores do CMT mostraram melhora significativa no sentido de regressão do nível da infecção ao longo do estudo; o valor final da SCC diminuiu em 82% dos animais, apontando para a eficácia do tratamento homeopático. Palavras-chave:  Mastite subclínica; Vacas leiteiras; Homeopatia; CMT, contagem de células somáticas.   Estudio preliminar del tratamiento homeopático de la mastitis sublínica evaluado mediante recuento de células somáticas (SCC) y California Mastitis Test (CMT) Resumen Este artículo presenta los resultados del tratamiento homeopático de 25 vacas raza Holstein entre 3 e 8 años de edad diagnosticadas com mastitis sucblínica mediante California Mastitis Test (CMT). Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos según el nível de la infección. Fue compuesto un complejo homeopático con base en la presentación clínica, incluyendo Phosphorus 30X, Phytolacca 30x, Sulphur 30x, Belladona 30x, Bryonia alba 30x, Silicea 30x, Pulsatilla 30x, Calendula 30x y bioterápico de Staphylococcus aureus 200x. El complejo fue agregado en sal y administrado a los animales en la dosis de 100g/vaca/día. CMT fue realizado cada 2 semanas para monitorizar la incidencia y gravedad de la mastitis; recuento de células somáticas (SCC) fue realizado al inicio y al final del tratamiento. CMT mostró mejoría significativa en el sentido de regresión del nivel de la infección a lo largo del estudio; el valor final del SCC disminuyó en 82% de los animales, apuntando para la eficacia del tratamiento homeopático. Palabras-clave:  Mastitis subclínica; Vacas lecheras; Homeopatía; CMT, recuento de células somáticas.   Correspondence author:  Zilda Cristiani Gazim, [email protected] How to cite this article:  Barzon CD, Medeiros F, Moraes RE, Silva LCM, Massambani C, Takemura OS, Gazim ZC. Preliminary study of homeopathic treatment of subclinical mastitis evaluated through somatic cells count and California mastitis test. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(24): 147-151. Available from:  

2021 ◽  
David Rodriguez-Crespo ◽  
Magali Nanchen ◽  
Shweta Rajopadhye ◽  
Chantal Wicky

Specific gene transcriptional programs are required to ensure proper proliferation and differentiation processes underlying the production of specialized cells during development. Gene activity is mainly regulated by the concerted action of transcription factors and chromatin proteins. In the nematode C. elegans, mechanisms that silence improper transcriptional programs in germline and somatic cells have been well studied, however, how are tissue specific sets of genes turned on is less known. LSL-1 is herein defined as a novel crucial transcriptional regulator of germline genes in C. elegans. LSL-1 is first detected in the P4 blastomere and remains present at all stages of germline development, from primordial germ cell proliferation to the end of meiotic prophase. lsl-1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit many defects including meiotic prophase progression delay, a high level of germline apoptosis, and production of almost no functional gametes. Transcriptomic analysis and ChIP-seq data show that LSL-1 binds to promoters and acts as a transcriptional activator of germline genes involved in various processes, including homologous chromosome pairing, recombination, and genome stability. Furthermore, we show that LSL-1 functions by antagonizing the action of the heterochromatin proteins HPL-2/HP1 and LET-418/Mi2 known to be involved in the repression of germline genes in somatic cells. Based on our results, we propose LSL-1 to be a major regulator of the germline transcriptional program during development.

2021 ◽  
Dong-Hyeok Kwon ◽  
Gyeong-Min Gim ◽  
Kyeong-Hyeon Eom ◽  
Ji-Hyun Lee ◽  
Goo Jang

Abstract Background: Several DNA transposons, PiggyBac (PB), Sleeping beauty (SB) and Tol2 have been applied as effective means for transgenesis in many species. Cattle are not typical experimental animals, and relatively little verification has been studied in this species. Thus, the goal of this study was the applicability of three transposon systems in somatic and embryo cells in cattle, while also determining which of the three systems is appropriate for each type of cell. To conduct the experiment, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transposon systems were used for electroporation and microinjection in the somatic cells and embryo stage, respectively. After transfection, GFP-positive cells or blastocysts were observed through a fluorescent microscope and transfection efficiency was calculated by FACS.Results: In the bovine somatic cells experiment, the PB (63.97 ± 11.56) showed higher efficiency as compared to the other two systems (SB: 50.74 ± 13.02 and Tol2: 16.55 ± 5.96). Unlike the results of the somatic cells, Tol2 (75.00%) and SB (70.00%) in the embryo were more efficient as compared to PB (42.86 %).Conclusions: These results demonstrate that all three transposon systems can be used in bovine somatic cells and embryos as a gene engineering experimental method and which type of transposon system is appropriate to apply depending on the cell type.

2021 ◽  
pp. 39-51
Constance Onfray ◽  
Jia Ping Tan ◽  
Stéphanie Kilens ◽  
Xiaodong Liu ◽  
Jose Polo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 563-563
Christian Sell ◽  
Manali Potnis

Abstract The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 is a maternally imprinted gene transcript that, in conjunction with the neighboring Igf2 gene, is critical in controlling embryonic growth. Loss of H19 results in fetal overgrowth associated with Beckwith Weidemann syndrome, while elevated H19 occurs in human cancers. In the adult, H19 functions in cancer cells where it promotes migration and is correlated with poor prognosis, and in adult stem cells where it is a key regulator of cell fate decisions during differentiation. While the function of H19 in primary somatic cells has not been defined, a reduction in the abundance of H19 has been reported during senescence in endothelial cells. Given the critical importance of H19 in cell fate decisions, it is likely that understanding the precise function of H19 in somatic cells in general and why reduced levels occur with cellular senescence will provide novel insights into both somatic cell maintenance and the senescence program. Towards this end, we examined the role of H19 in somatic cell growth using cardiac interstitial fibroblasts. Our results indicate that H19 is not only vital for somatic cell proliferation and survival, but that depletion of H19 leads to cell cycle arrest and the formation of abnormal nuclei resulting in senescent cells. We are defining both the upstream regulators of H19 and the downstream mediators of senescence following H19 depletion. Overall, these results indicate an essential role for H19 in cell cycle progression, chromatin structure, and possibly proper mitotic division.

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