satellite dna
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

1171
(FIVE YEARS 114)

H-INDEX

72
(FIVE YEARS 13)

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marco Regolini

Every adult male of the little roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is always and invariably comprised of exactly 1031 somatic cells, not one more, not one less; and so it is for the adult hermaphrodite (959 somatic cells); its intestine founder cell (the ‘E’ blastomere), if isolated and cultured, undergoes the same number of divisions as in the whole embryo (Robertson et al., 2014); the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster executes 13 cycles of asynchronous cell divisions without cellularization: how are these numbers counted? Artificial Intelligence (First and Second Order Logic, Knowledge graph Engineering) infers that, to perform precise stereotypical numbers of asynchronous cell divisions, a nucleic (genomic) counter is indispensable. Made up of tandemly repeated similar monomers, satellite DNA (satDNA) corresponds to iterable objects used in programming. The purpose of this article is to show how satDNA sequences can be iterated over to count a deterministic number of cell divisions: computational models (attached for free download) are introduced that handle DNA repeated sequences as iterable counters and simulate their use in cells through an epigenetic marker (cytosine methylation) as an iterator. SatDNA, because of its propensity to remodel its structure, can also operate as a strong accelerator in the evolution of complex organs and provides a basis to control interspecific variability of shapes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stanislau Yatskevich ◽  
Kyle W Muir ◽  
Dom Bellini ◽  
Ziguo Zhang ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
...  

Accurate chromosome segregation, controlled by kinetochore-mediated chromatid attachments to the mitotic spindle, ensures the faithful inheritance of genetic information. Kinetochores assemble onto specialized CENP-A nucleosomes (CENP-ANuc) of centromeric chromatin. In humans, this is mostly organized as thousands of copies of an ~171 bp α-satellite repeat. Here, we describe the cryo-EM structure of the human inner kinetochore CCAN (Constitutive Centromere Associated Network) complex bound to CENP-ANuc reconstituted onto α-satellite DNA. CCAN forms edge-on contacts with CENP-ANuc, while a linker DNA segment of the α-satellite repeat emerges from the fully-wrapped end of the nucleosome to thread through the central CENP-LN channel which tightly grips the DNA. The CENP-TWSX histone-fold module, together with CENP-HIKHead, further augments DNA binding and partially wraps the linker DNA in a manner reminiscent of canonical nucleosomes. Our study suggests that the topological entrapment of the α-satellite repeat linker DNA by CCAN provides a robust mechanism by which the kinetochore withstands the pushing and pulling of centromeres associated with chromosome congression and segregation forces.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3375
Author(s):  
Victor Spangenberg ◽  
Mikhail Losev ◽  
Ilya Volkhin ◽  
Svetlana Smirnova ◽  
Pavel Nikitin ◽  
...  

Although the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes that are enriched in tandemly repeated satellite DNA represent a significant part of eukaryotic genomes, they remain understudied, which is mainly due to interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Recent studies suggest their important role in genome regulation, karyotype stability, and evolution. Thus, the idea of satellite DNA as a junk part of the genome has been refuted. The integration of data regarding molecular composition, chromosome behaviour, and the details of the in situ organization of pericentromeric regions is of great interest. The objective of this work was a cytogenetic analysis of the interactions between pericentromeric regions from non-homologous chromosomes in mouse spermatocytes using immuno-FISH. We analysed two events: the associations between centromeric regions of the X chromosome and autosomes and the associations between the centromeric regions of the autosomal bivalents that form chromocenters. We concluded that the X chromosome forms temporary synaptic associations with different autosomes in early meiotic prophase I, which can normally be found until the pachytene–diplotene, without signs of pachytene arrest. These associations are formed between the satellite-DNA-rich centromeric regions of the X chromosome and different autosomes but do not involve the satellite-DNA-poor centromeric region of the Y chromosome. We suggest the hypothetical model of X chromosome competitive replacement from such associations during synaptic correction. We showed that the centromeric region of the X chromosome in association remains free of γH2Ax-dependent chromatin inactivation, while the Y chromosome is completely inactivated. This finding highlights the predominant role of associations between satellite DNA-rich regions of different chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We suppose that X-autosomal transient associations are a manifestation of an additional synaptic disorder checkpoint. These associations are normally corrected before the late diplotene stage. We revealed that the intense spreading conditions that were applied to the spermatocyte I nuclei did not lead to the destruction of stretched chromatin fibers of elongated chromocenters enriched in satellite DNA. The tight associations that we revealed between the pericentromeric regions of different autosomal bivalents and the X chromosome may represent the basis for a mechanism for maintaining the repeats stability in the autosomes and in the X chromosome. The consequences of our findings are discussed.


Author(s):  
Victor Spangenberg ◽  
Losev Michail ◽  
Volkhin Ilya ◽  
Svetlana Smirnova ◽  
Nikitin Pavel ◽  
...  

Pericentromeric regions of chromosomes enriched in tandemly repeated satellite DNA although representing a significant part of eukaryotic genomes are still understudied mainly due to interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Recent studies suggest their important role in genome regulation, karyotype stability and evolution. Thus, the idea of satellite DNA as a junk part of the genome was refuted. Integration of data about molecular composition, chromosome behaviour and details of in situ organization of pericentromeric regions is of great interest. The objective of this work was a cytogenetic analysis of the interactions of pericentromeric regions non-homologous chromosomes in mouse spermatocytes using immuno-FISH. We analysed two events: the associations between cerntomeric regions of X chromosome and autosomes, and associations between centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents forming chromocenters. We conclude that X chromosome form temporary synaptic associations with different autosomes in early meiotic prophase I which normally can be found at pachytene-diplotene without signs of pachytene arrest. These associations are formed between the satellite DNA-enriched centomeric regions of X chromosome and different autosomes but not involve the satellite-poor centromeric region of Y-chromosome. We suggest the mechanism of X chromosome competitive replacement from such associations during synaptic correction. We showed that centromeric region of the X chromosome remains free of γH2Ax-dependent chromatin inactivation, while Y chromosome is completely inactivated. This findings highlights the predominant role of associations between satellite DNA-enriched regions of different chromosomes including X. We assume that X-autosome temporary associations is a manifestation of an additional synaptic disorders checkpoint. These associations are normally corrected before the late diplotene. We revealed that the intense spreading conditions applied to the spermatocytes I nuclei did not lead to destruction of stretched chromatin fibers i.e. elongated chromocenters enriched in satellite DNA. Revealed by us tight associations between pericentromeric regions of different autosomal bivalents and X chromosome may represent the basis for repeat stability maintenance in autosomes an X chromosome. The consequences of our findings are discussed. We obtained the preparations of mouse spermatocytes nuclei in the meiotic prophase I using two approaches: standard and extremely intense surface spread techniques. Using immuno-FISH we visualized tandemly repeated mouse Major and Minor satellite DNA located in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes and performed a morphological comparison of the standard- and intensely spreaded meiotic nuclei. Based on our results, we assume the remarkable strength of the chromocenter-mediated associations, “chromatin “bridges”, between different bivalents at the pachytene and diplotene stages. We have demonstrated that the chromocenter “bridges” between the centromeric ends of meiotic bivalents are enriched in both tandemly repeated Major and Minor satellite DNA. Association of centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents and X-chromosome but not with Y-chromosome correlates with the absence of Major and Minor satellites on Y-chromosome. We suggest that revealed tight associations between pericentromeric regions of bivalents may represent the network-like system providing dynamic stability of chromosomal territories, as well as add new data for the hypothesis of ectopic recombination in these regions which supports sequence homogeneity between non-homologous chromosomes and does not contradict the meiotic restrictions imposed by the crossing-over interference near centromeres. We conclude that nuclear architecture in meio-sis may play an essential role in contacts between the non-homologous chromosomes providing the specific characteristics of pericentromeric DNA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tanja Vojvoda Zeljko ◽  
Đurđica Ugarković ◽  
Željka Pezer

Abstract Background Trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at satellite DNA sequences has been primarily studied at (peri)centromeric regions, where its level shows differences associated with various processes such as development and malignant transformation. However, the dynamics of H3K9me3 at distal satellite DNA repeats has not been thoroughly investigated. Results We exploit the sets of publicly available data derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq), produced by the The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, to analyze H3K9me3 at assembled satellite DNA repeats in genomes of human cell lines and during mouse fetal development. We show that annotated satellite elements are generally enriched for H3K9me3, but its level in cancer cell lines is on average lower than in normal cell lines. We find 407 satellite DNA instances with differential H3K9me3 enrichment between cancer and normal cells including a large 115-kb cluster of GSATII elements on chromosome 12. Differentially enriched regions are not limited to satellite DNA instances, but instead encompass a wider region of flanking sequences. We found no correlation between the levels of H3K9me3 and noncoding RNA at corresponding satellite DNA loci. The analysis of data derived from multiple tissues identified 864 instances of satellite DNA sequences in the mouse reference genome that are differentially enriched between fetal developmental stages. Conclusions Our study reveals significant differences in H3K9me3 level at a subset of satellite repeats between biological states and as such contributes to understanding of the role of satellite DNA repeats in epigenetic regulation during development and carcinogenesis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
María Laura González ◽  
Jorge Oscar Chiapella ◽  
Juan Domingo Urdampilleta

Diverse families of satellite DNA (satDNA) were detected in heterochromatin regions of Deschampsia. This kind of repetitive DNA consists of tandem repeat sequences forming big arrays in genomes, and can contribute to lineages differentiation. The differentiation between types of satDNA is related to their sequence identity, the size and number of monomers forming the array, and their chromosomal location. In this work, four families of satDNA (D2, D3, D12, D13), previously isolated by genomic analysis, were studied on chromosomal preparations of 12 species of Deschampsia (D. airiformis, D. antarctica, D. cespitosa, D. cordillerarum, D. elongata, D. kingii, D. laxa, D. mendocina, D. parvula, D. patula, D. venustula, and Deschampsia sp) and one of Deyeuxia (D. eminens). Despite the number of satDNA loci showing interspecific variation, the general distribution pattern of each satDNA family is maintained. The four satDNA families are AT-rich and associated with DAPI + heterochromatin regions. D2, D3, and D12 have mainly subterminal distribution, while D13 is distributed in intercalary regions. Such conservation of satDNA patterns suggests a not random distribution in genomes, where the variation between species is mainly associated with the array size and the loci number. The presence of satDNA in all species studied suggests a low genetic differentiation of sequences. On the other hand, the variation of the distribution pattern of satDNA has no clear association with phylogeny. This may be related to high differential amplification and contraction of sequences between lineages, as explained by the library model.


BMC Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
C. P. Stelzer ◽  
J. Blommaert ◽  
A. M. Waldvogel ◽  
M. Pichler ◽  
B. Hecox-Lea ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Eukaryotic genomes are known to display an enormous variation in size, but the evolutionary causes of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. To obtain mechanistic insights into such variation, previous studies have often employed comparative genomics approaches involving closely related species or geographically isolated populations within a species. Genome comparisons among individuals of the same population remained so far understudied—despite their great potential in providing a microevolutionary perspective to genome size evolution. The rotifer Brachionus asplanchnoidis represents one of the most extreme cases of within-population genome size variation among eukaryotes, displaying almost twofold variation within a geographic population. Results Here, we used a whole-genome sequencing approach to identify the underlying DNA sequence differences by assembling a high-quality reference genome draft for one individual of the population and aligning short reads of 15 individuals from the same geographic population including the reference individual. We identified several large, contiguous copy number variable regions (CNVs), up to megabases in size, which exhibited striking coverage differences among individuals, and whose coverage overall scaled with genome size. CNVs were of remarkably low complexity, being mainly composed of tandemly repeated satellite DNA with only a few interspersed genes or other sequences, and were characterized by a significantly elevated GC-content. CNV patterns in offspring of two parents with divergent genome size and CNV patterns in several individuals from an inbred line differing in genome size demonstrated inheritance and accumulation of CNVs across generations. Conclusions By identifying the exact genomic elements that cause within-population genome size variation, our study paves the way for studying genome size evolution in contemporary populations rather than inferring patterns and processes a posteriori from species comparisons.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cara L Brand ◽  
Mia T Levine

Satellite DNA spans megabases of eukaryotic genome sequence. These vast stretches of tandem DNA repeats undergo high rates of sequence turnover, resulting in radically different satellite DNA landscapes between closely related species. Such extreme evolutionary plasticity suggests that satellite DNA accumulates mutations with no functional consequence. Paradoxically, satellite-rich genomic regions support essential, conserved nuclear processes, including chromosome segregation, dosage compensation, and nuclear structure. A leading resolution to this paradox is that deleterious alterations to satellite DNA trigger adaptive evolution of chromatin proteins to preserve these essential functions. Here we experimentally test this model of coevolution between chromatin proteins and DNA satellites by conducting an evolution-guided manipulation of both protein and satellite. We focused on an adaptively evolving, ovary-enriched chromatin protein, called Maternal Haploid (MH) from Drosophila. MH co-localizes with an 11 Mb 359-bp satellite array present in Drosophila melanogaster but absent in its sister species, D. simulans. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated transgenesis, we swapped the D. simulans version of MH into D. melanogaster. We discovered that D. melanogaster females encoding only the D. simulans mh (mh[sim]) do not phenocopy the mh null mutation. Instead, MH[sim] is toxic to D. melanogaster ovaries: we observed elevated ovarian cell death, reduced ovary size, and subfertility in mh[sim] females. Using both cell biological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that MH[sim] poisons oogenesis through a DNA damage pathway. Remarkably, deleting the D. melanogaster-specific 359 satellite array from mh[sim] females completely restores female germline genome integrity and fertility. This genetic rescue offers experimental evidence that rapid evolution resulted in a cross-species incompatibility between the 359 satellite and MH. These data suggest that coevolution between ostensibly inert repetitive DNA and essential chromatin proteins preserves germline genome integrity.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document