cell divisions
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2022 ◽  
Marco Regolini

Every adult male of the little roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is always and invariably comprised of exactly 1031 somatic cells, not one more, not one less; and so it is for the adult hermaphrodite (959 somatic cells); its intestine founder cell (the ‘E’ blastomere), if isolated and cultured, undergoes the same number of divisions as in the whole embryo (Robertson et al., 2014); the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster executes 13 cycles of asynchronous cell divisions without cellularization: how are these numbers counted? Artificial Intelligence (First and Second Order Logic, Knowledge graph Engineering) infers that, to perform precise stereotypical numbers of asynchronous cell divisions, a nucleic (genomic) counter is indispensable. Made up of tandemly repeated similar monomers, satellite DNA (satDNA) corresponds to iterable objects used in programming. The purpose of this article is to show how satDNA sequences can be iterated over to count a deterministic number of cell divisions: computational models (attached for free download) are introduced that handle DNA repeated sequences as iterable counters and simulate their use in cells through an epigenetic marker (cytosine methylation) as an iterator. SatDNA, because of its propensity to remodel its structure, can also operate as a strong accelerator in the evolution of complex organs and provides a basis to control interspecific variability of shapes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2108641119
Chunhua Wang ◽  
Meng Li ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Nengsong Liang ◽  
Haiyang Li ◽  

Nitrogen fixation in soybean takes place in root nodules that arise from de novo cell divisions in the root cortex. Although several early nodulin genes have been identified, the mechanism behind the stimulation of cortical cell division during nodulation has not been fully resolved. Here we provide evidence that two paralogs of soybean SHORT-ROOT (GmSHR) play vital roles in soybean nodulation. Expression of GmSHR4 and GmSHR5 (GmSHR4/5) is induced in cortical cells at the beginning of nodulation, when the first cell divisions occur. The expression level of GmSHR4/5 is positively associated with cortical cell division and nodulation. Knockdown of GmSHR5 inhibits cell division in outer cortical layers during nodulation. Knockdown of both paralogs disrupts the cell division throughout the cortex, resulting in poorly organized nodule primordia with delayed vascular tissue formation. GmSHR4/5 function by enhancing cytokinin signaling and activating early nodulin genes. Interestingly, D-type cyclins act downstream of GmSHR4/5, and GmSHR4/5 form a feedforward loop regulating D-type cyclins. Overexpression of D-type cyclins in soybean roots also enhanced nodulation. Collectively, we conclude that the GmSHR4/5-mediated pathway represents a vital module that triggers cytokinin signaling and activates D-type cyclins during nodulation in soybean.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ryan C. Burdick ◽  
Claire Deleage ◽  
Alice Duchon ◽  
Jacob D. Estes ◽  
Wei-Shau Hu ◽  

HIV-1 integrates its genomic DNA into the chromosomes of the infected cell, but how it selects the site of integration and the impact of their location in the 3-dimensional nuclear space is not well understood. Here, we examined the nuclear locations of proviruses 1 and 5 days after infection and found that integration sites are first located near the nuclear envelope but become randomly distributed throughout the nucleus after a few cell divisions, indicating that the locations of the chromosomal sites of integration that harbor transcriptionally active proviruses are dynamic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlan ◽  
Roya Campos ◽  
Jessica N. Toth ◽  
Jaimie M. Van Norman

AbstractIn plants, cell polarity plays key roles in coordinating developmental processes. Despite the characterization of several polarly localized plasma membrane proteins, the mechanisms connecting protein dynamics with cellular functions often remain unclear. Here, we introduce a polarized receptor, KOIN, that restricts cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root meristem. In the endodermis, KOIN polarity is opposite to IRK, a receptor that represses endodermal cell divisions. Their contra-polar localization facilitates dissection of polarity mechanisms and the links between polarity and function. We find that IRK and KOIN are recognized, sorted, and secreted through distinct pathways. IRK extracellular domains determine its polarity and partially rescue the mutant phenotype, whereas KOIN’s extracellular domains are insufficient for polar sorting and function. Endodermal expression of an IRK/KOIN chimera generates non-cell-autonomous misregulation of root cell divisions that impacts patterning. Altogether, we reveal two contrasting mechanisms determining these receptors’ polarity and link their polarity to cell divisions in root tissue patterning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Jamaji C. Nwanaji-Enwerem ◽  
Chijioke Nze ◽  
Andres Cardenas

Abstract Background Despite the known role of mitosis in colorectal cancer, previous associations of long-term aspirin use with suppressed cancer-related epigenetic aging did not involve epigenetic mitotic clocks. We investigated these relationships using three epigenetic mitotic clocks developed for cancer risk prediction: EpiTOC, EpiTOC2, and MiAge. We utilized publicly available HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip data from 112 healthy colon (proximal and distal) mucosal samples taken at baseline (T1) and at 10-years follow-up (T2) from a screening cohort of 28 Polish women (11 non-users and 17 long-term [≥ 2 years] aspirin users). Mitotic clock values were divided by chronological age at each timepoint to obtain intrinsic rates (IRs). We evaluated differences in residuals of the mitotic clock IRs taken from linear mixed effects models adjusted for BMI, polyp status, and DNA methylation batch. Findings EpiTOC, EpiTOC2, and MiAge were significantly correlated with chronological age (P < 0.05) with correlations ranging from 0.41 to 0.63. The EpiTOC, EpiTOC2, and MiAge clocks were strongly correlated with each other in proximal and distal samples (r > 0.79, P < 0.0001). We observed proximal within group median clock IR deceleration for EpiTOC (-0.0004 DNAm, P = 0.008), EpiTOC2 (− 16 cell divisions, P = 0.009), and MiAge (− 3 cell divisions, P = 0.002) for long-term aspirin users from T1 to T2 but not for non-users. In distal samples, only the long-term user MiAge IR was significantly deaccelerated (− 3 cell divisions, P = 0.009). Conclusions Our observed findings support previously reported longitudinal associations of aspirin use with deceleration of other epigenetic age measures in the proximal colon. Our mitotic clock results suggest that cell proliferation could play a role in some aspirin relationships with epigenetic aging. Furthermore, the findings provide added impetus for establishing gold standards for epigenetic aging and consensus guidelines for more comprehensive reporting in future epigenetic aging cancer studies.

Alessandra Spaziano ◽  
Dr Irene Cantone

Mammalian females (XX) silence transcription on one of the two X chromosomes to compensate the expression dosage with males (XY). This process — named X-chromosome inactivation — entails a variety of epigenetic modifications that act synergistically to maintain silencing and make it heritable through cell divisions. Genes along the inactive X chromosome are, indeed, refractory to reactivation. Nonetheless, X-chromosome reactivation can occur alongside with epigenome reprogramming or by perturbing multiple silencing pathways. Here we review the events associated with X-chromosome reactivation during in vivo and in vitro reprogramming and highlight recent efforts in inducing Xi reactivation by molecular perturbations. This provides us with a first understanding of the mechanisms underlying X-chromosome reactivation, which could be tackled for therapeutic purposes.

2021 ◽  
Feng Chen ◽  
Zizhang Li ◽  
Xiaoyu Zhang ◽  
Peng Wu ◽  
Wenjing Yang ◽  

Differences in gene expression levels among genetically identical cells naturally accumulate during cellular proliferation, forming the basis of expression noise or differentiation. Nevertheless, how transcriptome-wide noise accumulation is constrained to maintain homeostasis during continuous cell divisions has remained largely unresolved. We developed a novel method named single-cell transcriptome and dense tree (STADT) to simultaneously determines the transcriptomes and lineage tree of >50% single cells in a single-cell-seeded colony. This lineage tree revealed gradual accumulation of transcriptome differences that became saturated upon four cell divisions, reduced expression noise for sub-tree/sub-colonies closer to inferred expression boundaries, and transcriptionally modulated co-fluctuations among genes. These results collectively showed, for the first time, constrained dynamics of expression noise in the context of cell division.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 598-598
Emily Mitchell ◽  
Michael Spencer Chapman ◽  
Nicholas Williams ◽  
Kevin J Dawson ◽  
Nicole Mende ◽  

Abstract The haematopoietic system manifests several age-associated phenotypes including anaemia; loss of regenerative capacity, especially in the face of insults such as infection, chemotherapy or blood loss; and increased risk of clonal haematopoiesis and blood cancers. The cellular alterations that underpin these age-related phenotypes, which typically manifest in individuals aged over 70, remain elusive. We aimed to investigate whether changes in HSC population structure with age might underlie any aspects of haematopoietic system ageing. We sequenced 3579 genomes from single-cell-derived colonies of haematopoietic stem cell/multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs) from 10 haematologically normal subjects aged 0-81 years. HSC/MPPs accumulated 17 somatic mutations/year after birth with no increased rate of mutation accumulation in the elderly. HSC/MPP telomere length declined by 30 bp/yr. In cord blood and adults aged &lt;65, a small proportion of HSC/MPPs had unexpectedly long telomeres, as assessed using several criteria for outliers. The proportion of cells with unexpectedly long telomeres reduced in frequency with age. Given that telomeres shorten at cell division, these outlier cells have presumably undergone fewer historic cell divisions, supporting the existence of a rare population of dormant HSCs in humans that declines in frequency with age. To interrogate changes in HSC population structure with age, we used the pattern of unique and shared mutations between the sampled cells from each individual to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. The frequency of branch-points (known as coalescences) in phylogenetic trees in a neutrally evolving, well-mixed population of somatic cells is primarily determined by the product of population size and time between symmetric self-renewal cell divisions (Nt). Smaller populations and more frequent symmetric divisions both increase the density of coalescences. Specific clones can come to dominate either through neutral drift or positive selection. We found that haematopoiesis in adults aged &lt;65 was polyclonal, with high indices of clonal diversity. The number and pattern of coalescent events in the phylogenies showed that a stable population of 20,000 to 200,000 HSC/MPPs was contributing evenly to blood production in young adult life. In contrast, haematopoiesis in individuals aged &gt;75 showed profoundly decreased clonal diversity. In each elderly subject, 30-60% of haematopoiesis was accounted for by 12-18 independent clones, each contributing 1-34% of blood production. Most clones had begun their expansion before age 40, but only 22% had known driver mutations. We used the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) to identify any excess of non-synonymous (driver) mutations in the dataset. This genome-wide selection analysis estimated that 1/34 to 1/12 non-synonymous mutations were drivers, occurring at a constant rate throughout life, such that the set of 300 - 400 HSC/MPPs sampled from each adult individual harboured around 100 driver mutations, over 10-fold higher than the number of known drivers we could identify. Novel drivers affected a wider pool of genes than identified in blood cancers. The genes DNMT3A, ZNF318 and HIST2H3D were identified as being under significant positive selection in HSC/MPPs, despite ZNF318 and HIST2H3D not being enriched in the setting of myeloid malignancies. Loss of Y chromosome conferred selective benefits on HSC/MPPs in males. Simulations from a simple model of haematopoiesis, with constant HSC population size and constant acquisition of driver mutations conferring moderate fitness benefits, entirely explained the abrupt change in clonal structure observed in the elderly, which could not be explained by neutral models incorporating drift alone. Our data supports the view that dramatically decreased clonal diversity is a universal feature of haematopoiesis in aged humans, underpinned by pervasive positive selection acting on many more genes than currently known. By old age the majority of HSCs harbour at least one driver mutation. With such ubiquity of driver mutations, selected purely for their competitive advantage within the stem cell compartment, and with the wholesale rewiring of cellular pathways they induce, it is feasible that they may contribute to age-related phenotypes beyond the increased risk of blood cancer. Disclosures Spencer: Wugen, Inc.: Consultancy, Other: Stock Options. Vassiliou: Kymab Ltd: Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months; STRM.BIO: Consultancy; Astrazeneca: Consultancy. Kent: STRM.bio: Research Funding. Campbell: Mu Genomics: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Deepa Bhartiya ◽  
Hiren Patel ◽  
Ankita Kaushik ◽  
Pushpa Singh ◽  
Diksha Sharma

AbstractFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary and acts on the germ cells indirectly through Granulosa cells in ovaries and Sertoli cells in the testes. Extragonadal action of FSH has been reported but is still debated. Adult tissues harbor two populations of stem cells including a reserve population of primitive, small-sized, pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and slightly bigger, tissue-specific progenitors which include ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in ovaries, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in testes, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) in uterus and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. Data has accumulated in animal models showing FSHR expression on both VSELs and progenitors in ovaries, testes, uterus and bone marrow and eventually gets lost as the cells differentiate further. FSH exerts a direct action on the stem/progenitor cells via alternatively spliced FSHR-3 rather than the canonical FSHR-1. FSH stimulates VSELs to undergo asymmetrical cell divisions to self-renew and give rise to the progenitors that in turn undergo symmetrical cell divisions and clonal expansions followed by differentiation into specific cell types. Excessive self-renewal of VSELs results in cancer and this explains ubiquitous expression of embryonic markers including nuclear OCT-4 along with FSHR in cancerous tissues. Focus of this review is to compile published data to support this concept. FSHR expression in stem/progenitor cells was confirmed by immuno-fluorescence, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and by quantitative RT-PCR. Two different commercially available antibodies (Abcam, Santacruz) were used to confirm specificity of FSHR expression along with omission of primary antibody and pre-incubation of antibody with immunizing peptide as negative controls. Western blotting allowed detection of alternatively spliced FSHR isoforms. Oligoprobes and primers specific for Fshr-1 and Fshr-3 were used to study these alternately-sliced isoforms by in situ hybridization and their differential expression upon FSH treatment by qRT-PCR. To conclude, stem/progenitor cells in adult tissues express FSHR and directly respond to FSH via FSHR-3. These findings change the field of FSH-FSHR biology, call for paradigm shift, explain FSHR expression on cancer cells in multiple organs and provide straightforward explanations for various existing conundrums including extragonadal expression of FSHR.

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