AbstractIt is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
A model for simulating charge exchange (CX) of fast ions with background atoms in magnetically conﬁned fusion plasmas has been implemented in the ASCOT orbit-following code. The model was veriﬁed by comparing simulated reaction mean free paths to analytical values across a range of fusion-relevant parameters. ASCOT was used to simulate beam ions slowing down in the presence of CX reactions in a MAST-U target scenario. ASCOT predicts the CX-induced loss of beam power to be 22%, which agrees to within 15% with the TRANSP prediction. Because of CX, plasma heating and current drive by beam ions are strongly reduced towards the edge. However, an overall lower but noticeable increase of up to 20% in current drive is predicted closer to the core. The simulated deposition of fast CX atoms on the wall is concentrated around the outer midplane, with estimated peak power loads of 70–80 kWm-2 on the central poloidal field coils (P5) and the vacuum vessel wall between them. This analysis demonstrates that ASCOT can be used to simulate fast ions in fusion plasmas where CX reactions play a significant role, e.g., in spherical tokamaks and stellarators.
Keyhole laser welding is the benchmark for deep-penetration joining processes. It needs high incident laser beam power densities at the workpiece surface to take place. The gaseous phase plays a fundamental role to keep the deep and narrow keyhole cavity open during the process. The plasma created in this process is a mixture of ionized metal vapors and the environmental gas and it develops inside the keyhole (keyhole plasma) and above the workpiece surface (plasma plume). The presence of plasma implicates absorption, scattering, and refraction of laser beam rays. These phenomena alter the power density of the laser beam irradiating the workpiece surface and thus affect the resulting welding process. In this work, a mathematical and numerical model has been developed to calculate the keyhole shape taking into account the plasma absorption effects. The model considers the keyhole walls as the liquid-vapor interface and computes the keyhole geometry applying a local energy balance at this interface. In addition, the model takes into account the multiple reflections effects inside the cavity through an iterative ray-tracing technique, and calculates the absorption mechanism due to inverse Bremsstrahlung for each ray along its segmented path inside the keyhole. Results show the effect of plasma properties on the keyhole shape and depth.
We consider the effect of a tightly focused laser beam with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a power from 10 to 160 mW on red blood cells during their optical trapping with optical tweezers. It is found that the shape of a red blood cell, which alters after optical trapping, ceases to change when the trapping duration is less than 5 min and the laser beam power is less than 60 mW. At a beam power above 80 mW, the red blood cell begins to fold at a trapping duration of about 1 min, and at powers above 100-150 mW, the red blood cell membrane ruptures in 1-3 min after optical trapping. It is also found that with repeated short-term capture of a red blood cell in an optical trap, the deformation properties of the membrane change: it becomes more rigid. The obtained results are important both for understanding the mechanisms of interaction of a laser
beam with red blood cells and for optimising the technique of optical experiments, especially for measuring the deformation properties of a membrane using optical tweezers.
The article presents significant results in research on creating superhydrophobic properties of materials which can be used as an interesting material for use in self-cleaning polymer protective gloves and similar applications where the superhydrophobicity plays a significant role. In this work the influence of laser surface modification of MVQ silicone rubber was investigated. The research was conducted using a nanosecond-pulsed laser at 1060 nm wavelength. After a process of laser ablation, the surface condition was examined using a SEM microscope and infrared spectroscopy. During the tests, the contact angle was checked both before and after the laser modification of samples pre-geometrised in the process of their production. The test results presented in the paper indicate that the chemical and physical modifications contribute to the change in the MVQ silicone rubber contact angle. A significant increase (by more than 30°) in the contact angle to 138° was observed. It was confirmed that surface geometrisation is not the only factor contributing to an increase in the contact angle of the analyzed material; other factors include a change in laser texturing parameters, such as mean beam power, pulse duration, scanning speed and pulse repetition frequency.
Among the third-generation Al-Li alloys, AA2198 stands out for its lower density, formability and increased stiffness, being suitable for use in aircraft fuselage sheets and other inner structures in order to reduce weight and improve performance. An important topic related to damage tolerant structures is the development of techniques to retard fatigue crack propagation, such as the localized heating by a laser source. The aim of the present work was to find the most suitable parameters for the production of laser heating lines in 2198-T851 alloy sheets in order to reduce the fatigue crack growth rate in this material. Laboratory tests using C(T) specimens under two loading conditions (R = 0.1 and 0.5) provided a useful dataset on the laser heated material. The experimental results indicate a 200 W laser beam power at treatment speeds of 1 and 10 mm/s was sufficient to retard crack growth in the current setup. The more expressive results were obtained for 200 W laser power with a speed of 1 mm/s and cyclic loading with stress ratio R = 0.1.
Relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities arising by the passage of a linearly polarized laser beam through a partially stripped magnetized quantum plasma are analyzed. The interaction formalism has been developed using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic model. The effects associated with the Fermi pressure, quantum Bohm potential and electron spin have been incorporated. A nonparaxial, non-linear wave equation has been obtained by the use of source dependent expansion technique and spot size has been evaluated. The nonlinear relativistic self-focusing tends to focus the beam while the ponderomotive nonlinearity tends to defocus. The effect of magnetization and quantum effects on the spot size and the beam power have been studied.
Power-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) assigns different power levels for near and far users in order to discriminate their signals by employing successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the near user. In this context, multiple-input-single-output NOMA (MISO-NOMA), where the base station (BS) is equipped with multiple antennas while each mobile user has a single antenna receiver, is shown to have a better overall performance by using the knowledge of instantaneous channel state information (CSI). However, this requires prior estimation of CSI using pilot transmission, which increases the transmission overhead. Moreover, its performance is severely degraded in the presence of CSI estimation errors. In this work, we provide statistical beamforming solutions for downlink power-domain NOMA that utilize only knowledge of statistical CSI, thus reducing the transmission overhead significantly. First, we derive the outage probabilities for both near and far users in the multi-user NOMA system without imposing strong assumptions, such as Gaussian or Chi-square distribution. This is done by employing the exact characterization of the ratio of indefinite quadratic form (IQF). Second, this work proposes two techniques to obtain the optimal solution for beam vectors which rely on the derived outage probabilities. Specifically, these two methods are based on (1) minimization of total beam power while constraining the outage probabilities to the QoS threshold, and (2) minimization of outage probabilities while constraining the total beam power. These proposed methods are non-convex function of beam vectors and, hence, are solved using numerical optimization via sequential quadratic programming (SQP). Since the proposed methods do not require pilot transmission for channel estimation, they inherit better spectral efficiency. Our results validate the theoretical findings and prove the supremacy of the proposed method.