altitude sickness
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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 270-278
Vera Spatenkova ◽  
Roman Bednar ◽  
Gabriela Oravcova ◽  
Anna Melichova ◽  
Eduard Kuriscak

High altitude sojourn is a risk factor for hypobaric hypoxemia and subsequent altitude sickness. The aim of this study was to analyze the ef-fect of new type of yogic breathing?Maheshwarananda’s new Modified Bhujangini Pranayama performed by active yoga practitioners?on the arterial haemoglobin saturation of oxygen (measured by the pulse oximetry - SpO2) and the heart rate compared to normal spontaneous resting breathing. A pilot prospective study was conducted in the Himalayas at an altitude of 3,650 m. We monitored SpO2 and pulse rate in 34 experienced yoga practitioners. Within the 3 measurement days at the altitude of 3,650 m, the mean value of SpO2 increased from 89.11± 4.78 to 93.26±4.44 (P<0.001) after the yogic breathing exercise. No significant changes were observed in pulse rate (P<0.230) measured before and after yogic breathing. The new Yogic breathing?Maheshwarananda’s Modified Bhujangini Pranayama?is increasing the arterial haemoglobin saturation compared to normal resting spontaneous breathing. The heart rate was not affected by this type of yogic breathing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Soumya Majumder ◽  
Arindam Ghosh ◽  
Sourav Chakraborty ◽  
Sumedha Saha ◽  
Malay Bhattacharya

AbstractRaksi, a fermented distilled alcoholic beverage, is an ethnic drink consumed in high altitude regions of Singalila Ridge of the Himalayas and in adjoining high altitude places in Nepal, northern and north eastern part of India and Tibetan plateau. Like jaanr, tongba, nigar, chhyang, and other fermented ethnic beverages, raksi is considered as an element of ethnopharmacology of high altitude with claims of medicinal properties. An ethnobiological survey was done in the study area prior to collection and identification of raksi samples. In this research, two raksi samples (khokim raksi and chimphing raksi) of Singalila Ridge of the Himalayas were investigated by metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results of the experiment showed presence of several respiratory protective, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant components which have properties to prevent various high altitude illnesses. Moreover, large quantities of bioactive terpenoids, fatty acid derivatives, coumarins, and peptides were detected whose chemotaxonomy and biosynthesis pathways were further studied. This metabolomics investigation not only affirmed Raksi as a remedy for high-altitude sickness but also helped in understanding the importance of this type of ethnic foods in high altitude ethnoecology. This research on raksi in the fields of ethnobiology and metabolomics is a cumulative approach which has opened the door for in-depth investigations on similar ethnic foods. However, further experiments on raksi are surely needed in ethnobiology, microbiology, biochemistry, and food technology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Morin Lang ◽  
Valeria Paéz ◽  
Giacomo Maj ◽  
Juan Silva-Urra ◽  
Cristián Labarca-Valenzuela ◽  

Introduction: Limited information is available on blood pressure (BP) behavior in workers exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), and even less is known regarding effects of CIH on 24-h ambulatory BP in those affected by arterial hypertension at sea level (SL). The aims of this study were to assess clinic and 24-h ambulatory BP at SL and at high altitude (HA; 3,870 m above SL) in workers exposed to CIH, and to compare BP response to HA exposure between normotensive and hypertensive workers.Methods: Nineteen normotensive and 18 pharmacologically treated hypertensive miners acclimatized to CIH were included, whose work was organized according to a “7 days-on−7 days-off” shift pattern between SL and HA. All measurements were performed on the second and seventh day of their HA shift and after the second day of SL sojourn.Results: Compared to SL, 24-h systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased at HA [+14.7 ± 12.6 mmHg (p &lt; 0.001) and +8.7 ± 7.2 mmHg (p &lt; 0.001), respectively], and SBP nocturnal fall decreased consistently (−4.1 ± 9.8%; p &lt; 0.05) in all participants, with hypertensives showing higher nocturnal DBP than normotensives (p &lt; 0.05) despite the current therapy. Also, heart rate (HR) nocturnal fall tended to be reduced at HA. In addition, the 24-h SBP/DBP hypertension threshold of ≥130/80 mmHg was exceeded by 39% of workers at SL and by 89% at HA. Clinic HR, SBP, and DBP were significantly higher on the second day of work at HA compared with SL, the increase being more pronounced for SBP in hypertensives (p &lt; 0.05) and accompanied by, on average, mild altitude sickness in both groups. These symptoms and the values of all cardiovascular variables decreased on the seventh day at HA (p &lt; 0.05) regardless of CIH exposure duration.Conclusion: Long history of work at HA according to scheduled CIH did not prevent the occurrence of acute cardiovascular changes at HA during the first days of exposure. The BP response to HA tended to be more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive workers despite being already treated; the BP changes were more evident for 24-h ambulatory BP. Twenty-four-hour ABP monitoring is a useful tool for an appropriate evaluation of BP in CIH workers.

2021 ◽  
Lining Si ◽  
Haiyuan Wang ◽  
Rong Wang ◽  
Qifu Long ◽  
Yanli Zhao

Abstract Background: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a common acute altitude sickness. The results from existing studies have shown that the occurrence of HAPE is related to genetic factors. Therefore, six locis of MIR17HG were selected to study its effect on HAPE of Chinese population.Methods: All subjects were genotyped by the Agena MassARRAY, and the relationship between polymorphisms on MIR17HG and HAPE risk was evaluated using a χ2 test with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in multiple genetic models.Results: In the allele model, we observed that lower risk (OR = 0.74, p = 0.036) of the A allele for rs7318578 on the MIR17HG compared to the people with the C allele. Logistic regression analysis of four models for all selected MIR17HG SNPs between cases and controls showed significant differences for rs7318578 (OR = 0.74, p = 0.037) and rs17735387 (OR = 1.51, p = 0.036) in the HAPE population. Conclusion: Rs7318578 and rs17735387 on MIR17HG were associated with the genetic susceptibility of HAPE in Chinese population.

2021 ◽  
pp. 55-58
A.S. Samoylov ◽  
N.V. Rylova ◽  
I.V. Bol’shakov ◽  
V.F. Kazakov ◽  

The aim of the study is to determine the tactics of effective prevention and treatment of altitude sickness in the conditions of medium and high mountains. Materials and research methods. Domestic and foreign literature on altitude sickness are analyzed. The search was carried out using the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, eLIBRARY for the period from 2013 to 2021. The following keywords and their combinations were used for the search: altitude sickness, treatment, prevention. Research results and their analysis. The features of the development of altitude sickness, risk factors, modern approaches to the treatment of this pathology, as well as the possibilities of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of prevention are considered. It is noted that the key method of preventing altitude sickness is a gradual ascent to great heights, and a promising method for its prevention can be an early implementation of interval hypoxic training. If one needs to quickly climb to heights of over 2.5 thousand meters, it is possible to use drugs such as acetazolamide and dexamethasone. In case of ineffectiveness of prevention and of development of any form of altitude sickness, the most effective treatment is an immediate descent to lower altitudes. If the descent is impossible, the use of oxygen and pharmacotherapy is justified, it is also possible to use hyperbaric chambers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Arima ◽  
Masayuki Nakano ◽  
Sweta Koirala ◽  
Hiromu Ito ◽  
Basu Dev Pandey ◽  

Abstract Background Tibetan highlanders have adapted to hypoxic environments through the development of unique mechanisms that suppress an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration even in high-altitude areas. Hb concentrations generally decrease with increasing age. However, in the highlands, chronic altitude sickness is known to occur in the elderly population. To investigate how aging in a hypoxic environment affects Hb levels in Tibetan highlanders, we focused on the Mustang people, who live above 3500 m. We tried to clarify the pure relationship between aging and Hb levels in a hypoxic environment. Results We found that the Hb concentration increased with increasing age in females but not in males. Multivariate analysis showed that age, pulse pressure, the poverty index, and vascular diameter were strongly correlated with the Hb concentration. Conclusions We found unique Hb dynamics among female Tibetan highlanders. As seen in these Hb dynamics, there may be sex-based differences in the adaptive mechanism in Tibetan highlanders.

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