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Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2964
Author(s):  
Yaqi Zhao ◽  
Jinhua Zuo ◽  
Shuzhi Yuan ◽  
Wenlin Shi ◽  
Junyan Shi ◽  
...  

This study examines ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment supplementation as a means of inhibiting the senescence of pepino fruit after harvest. Pepino fruits were subjected to 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatments and then packed and stored at 10 °C for 28 d. Results showed that 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment had the greatest ability to maintain firmness, and reduced the level of respiration and ethylene production. Further analysis indicated that the 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment maintained the content of total soluble solids (TSS), chlorophyll, vitamin C, flavonoids, and total phenolics. Lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity were found in UV-C treated fruit during storage. An electronic nose (E-nose) and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) was used to determine volatile compounds. Results revealed that the UV-C treatment may promote the synthesis of a large number of alcohols and esters by maintaining the overall level of acids, aldehydes, and esters in fruits. This may contribute to the maintenance of the flavor of harvested fruits. In conclusion, 1.5 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for the maintenance of the sensory, nutritional, and flavor parameters of pepino fruit.


Nanomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Priya Gupta ◽  
Yub Raj Neupane ◽  
Suhel Parvez ◽  
Kanchan Kohli

Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring tumor disease worldwide. Breast cancer is currently managed by conventional chemotherapy, which is inadequate in curbing this heterogeneous disease and results in off-site toxic effects, suggesting effective treatment approaches with better therapeutic profiles are needed. This review, therefore, focuses on the recent advancements in delivering therapeutics to the target site using passive and/or active targeted nanodrug-delivery systems to ameliorate endolysosomal escape. In addition, recent strategies in targeting breast cancer stem cells are discussed. The role of naturally cell-secreted nanovesicles (exosomes) in the management of triple-negative breast cancer is also discussed.


Author(s):  
Станислав Валерьевич Микляев ◽  
Ольга Михайловна Леонова ◽  
Андрей Валерьевич Сущенко ◽  
Антон Дмитриевич Козлов

Микрофлора человека - сложная саморегулирующая система, способная восстанавливаться при грамотной коррекции. Исследования последних лет показали, что нарушение нормального микробиоценоза полости рта растет из года в год и у жителей Российской Федерации превышает 90 %, вызывая при этом воспалительные заболевания в тканях пародонта, и, как правило, сопровождается дисбиозом полости рта, выраженность которого соответствует степени поражения пародонта. Одно из ведущих мест в развитии данной патологии занимает резидентная облигатно-анаэробная и микроаэрофильная микрофлора полости рта. Изучение микробиологического состава пародонтальных карманов (ПК) при воспалительных заболеваниях тканей пародонта (ВЗТП) имеет большое значение непосредственно для эффективного лечения и понимания патогенетических этапов этих заболеваний. Достаточно серьезной проблемой современной стоматологии как в нашей стране, так и за рубежом являются заболевания пародонта. Указанная патология снижает принятый ВОЗ критерий качества жизни и приводит к преждевременной потере зубов и представляет серьезную медицинскую, социальную и экономическую проблему. Первичным фактором, вызывающим поражение пародонта, являются бактерии зубного налета. Этиологическая структура инфекционных процессов в последнее десятилетие значительно изменилась, что связано с постоянной эволюцией микробов и вовлечением в патологический процесс условно-патогенных микробов, которые могут выступать в качестве комменсалов в составе нормальной микрофлоры и проявлять свою патогенность при снижении иммунного статуса организма The human microflora is a complex self-regulating system that can be restored with proper correction. Recent studies have shown that the violation of the normal microbiocenosis of the oral cavity increases from year to year and in the residents of the Russian Federation exceeds 90 %, causing inflammatory diseases in the periodontal tissues, and, as a rule, is accompanied by dysbiosis of the oral cavity, the severity of which corresponds to the degree of periodontal damage. One of the leading places in the development of this pathology is occupied by the resident obligate-anaerobic and microaerophilic microflora of the oral cavity. The study of the microbiological composition of periodontal pockets (PC) in inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues (VSTP) is of great importance directly for the effective treatment and understanding of the pathogenetic stages of these diseases. Quite a serious problem of modern dentistry both in our country and abroad are periodontal diseases. This pathology reduces the WHO-accepted quality of life criterion and leads to premature tooth loss, and is a serious medical, social and economic problem. The primary factor that causes periodontal disease is plaque bacteria. The etiological structure of infectious processes has changed significantly in the last decade, which is due to the constant evolution of microbes and the involvement of conditionally pathogenic microbes in the pathological process, which can act as commensals in the normal microflora and show their pathogenicity with a decrease in the immune status of the body


Author(s):  
Patricia Jarabo ◽  
Carmen de Pablo ◽  
Amanda González-Blanco ◽  
Sergio Casas-Tintó

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor among adults and currently there is no effective treatment. It is a very aggressive tumor that grows fast and spreads through the brain causing the death of patients in 15 months. GB cells mutate frequently and generate a heterogeneous population of tumoral cells genetically distinct. Thus, the contribution of genes and signaling pathways relevant for GB progression is of great relevance. We use a Drosophila model of GB that reproduces the features of human GB, and describe the upregulation of the circadian gene cry in GB patients and in a Drosophila GB model. We study the contribution of cry to the expansion of GB cells, to the neurodegeneration caused by GB, and to premature death and determine that cry is required for GB progression. Moreover, we analyze the mechanisms that regulate cry expression by the PI3K pathway. Finally, we conclude that cry is necessary and sufficient to regulate myc expression in GB. These results contribute to the understanding of the signals that impulse GB malignancy and lethality and open novel opportunities for the treatment of GB patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi-Yong Yao ◽  
Chaoqung Xing ◽  
Yuan-Wu Liu ◽  
Xiao-Liang Xing

Almost 75% of renal cancers are renal clear cell carcinomas (KIRC). Accumulative evidence indicates that epigenetic dysregulations are closely related to the development of KIRC. Cancer immunotherapy is an effective treatment for cancers. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related differentially expressed genes (IR-DEGs) associated with aberrant methylations and construct a risk assessment model using these IR-DEGs to predict the prognosis of KIRC. Two IR-DEGs (SLC11A1 and TNFSF14) were identified by differential expression, correlation analysis, and Cox regression analysis, and risk assessment models were established. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.6907. In addition, we found that risk scores were significantly associated with 31 immune cells and factors. Our present study not only shows that two IR-DEGs can be used as prognosis signatures for KIRC, but also provides a strategy for the screening of suitable prognosis signatures associated with aberrant methylation in other cancers.


Author(s):  
Melika Kooshki Forooshani ◽  
Rosa Scarpitta ◽  
Giuseppe Nicolò Fanelli ◽  
Mario Miccoli ◽  
Antonio Giuseppe Naccarato ◽  
...  

: Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease and the most prevalent malignant tumor in women worldwide. The majority of BC cases are positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), both known to be involved in cancer pathogenesis, progression, and invasion. In line with this, hormonal deprivation therapy appears to be a useful tool and an effective treatment for these BC subtypes. Unfortunately, prognosis among patients with hormone-negative tumors or therapy-refractory and metastatic patients remains poor. Novel biomarkers are urgently needed in order to predict the course of the disease, make better therapy decisions and improve the overall survival of patients. In this respect, the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the hormonal nuclear receptor superfamily and ER and PgR, emerges as an interesting feature widely expressed in human BCs. Despite the advances, the precise tumorigenic mechanism of AR and the role of its endogenous ligands are yet not well-understood. In this review, we aim to elaborate on the prognostic impact of AR expression and current AR-targeting approaches based on previous studies investigating AR's role in different BC subtypes.


2021 ◽  
pp. 81-88
Author(s):  
Y. N. Maksimov ◽  
D. Kh. Khaibullina

Back and neck pain is widespread in the population. Preferably, patients of working age are sick, which leads to serious economic losses. The transition of pain from acute to chronic increases financial costs, so effective treatment of back pain is an important medical, social and economic problem. Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) prevails among all types of back pain. The source of the MSP can be various structures of the musculoskeletal system: bones, joints, muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments, intervertebral discs. The provoking factors for the development of the MSP are static and dynamic overloads arising from physical work, long stay in a fixed posture, unprepared movements, hypothermia, vibrations. The leading diagnostic method for the MSP is a physical research of a patient which includes a detailed collection of complaints and anamnesis, inspection in statics and dynamics, carrying out global and special tests, neuroorthopedic and neurological research. In most cases, the analysis of the results obtained allows you to set a clinical diagnosis without appointing additional research methods. Two cases of acute MSP with different localization, clinical manifestations and flow are offered to the discussion. In the first case, the process was localized in the muscles of the law back. In the second patient, the muscular tonic syndrome developed in the muscles of the neck and shoulder belt and was supported by functional blockades of the vertebral motor segments. For the treatment of both patients, NSAID, muscle relaxant, glucocorticoid, as well as non-drug therapy methods were used. For local injection therapy, a drug group of glucocorticoids was used, having a sodium phosphate and betamethazone dipropionate as part of the sodium betamethasone. The combination of two betamethazone salts provides both the rapid and prolonged effect of the drug, which makes it reasonable to use it with acute musculoskeletal pain.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Iram Amanullah ◽  
Fatima Amin ◽  
Vibhu Paudyal ◽  
Salamat Ali ◽  
Yaseen Abdullah ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C including liver cirrhosis poses challenges in treatment despite the availability of direct acting antivirals. AimTo compare clinical and patient reported outcomes of routinely used pharmacotherapy in Hepatitis C infection (with or without cirrhosis). MethodsA prospective cohort study was undertaken recruiting outpatients from a large referral tertiary care hospital. Patients who were diagnosed of having Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and presented with or without cirrhosis were included. A standard 12 weeks treatment comprising Sofosbuvir (SOF) 400mg O.D/ Daclatasvir (DCV) 60mg O.D with and without Ribavirin (RBV) 400mg B.D or T.I.D was used. The cure rate in terms of end-of-treatment response at the end of 12 weeks treatment and patient reported outcomes (PROs) in terms of health related quality of life using EQ-5D-3L and work productivity loss were determined. Results The treatment regimen was found to be effective treatment in non-cirrhotic group in terms of cure rate compared to the cirrhotic patients (92.6 % vs 53%; p value<0.05). Cirrhotic patients showed significantly low score of PROs before initiating the treatment. After 12 weeks’ treatment, significantly higher rate of improvement was observed in non-cirrhotic patients’ PROs compared to cirrhotic group (p-value; <0.05). Conclusion DAAs showed higher effectiveness in clinical outcomes and patient reported outcome measures in chronic hepatitis C patients without cirrhosis compared to those with cirrhosis. It is imperative to develop and optimize further effective treatment options for cirrhotic CHC patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sabrina H. Ansarey

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric illness with no single definitive aetiology, making its treatment difficult. Antipsychotics are not fully effective because they treat psychosis rather than the cognitive or negative symptoms. Antipsychotics fail to alleviate symptoms when patients enter the chronic stage of illness. Topical application of niacin showed diminished skin flush in the majority of patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population who showed flushing. The niacin skin flush test is useful for identifying patients with schizophrenia at their ultra-high-risk stage, and understanding this pathology may introduce an effective treatment. This review aims to understand the pathology behind the diminished skin flush response, while linking it back to neurons and microglia. First, it suggests that there are altered proteins in the GPR109A-COX-prostaglandin pathway, inflammatory imbalance, and kinase signalling pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are associated with diminished flush. Second, genes from the GPR109A-COX-prostaglandin pathway were matched against the 128-loci genome wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia using GeneCards, suggesting that G-coupled receptor-109A (GPR109A) may have a genetic mutation, resulting in diminished flush. This review also suggests that there may be increased pro-inflammatory mediators in the GPR109A-COX-prostaglandin pathway, which contributes to the diminished flush pathology. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers may induce microglial-activated neuronal death. Lastly, this review explores the role of JNK on pro-inflammatory mediators, proteins in the GPR109A-COX-prostaglandin pathway, microglial activation, and neuronal death. Inhibiting JNK may reverse the changes observed in the diminished flush response, which might make it a good therapeutic target.


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