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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Albratty ◽  
H. A. Alhazmi ◽  
A. M. Meraya ◽  
A. Najmi ◽  
M. S. Alam ◽  

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. W. Debiasi ◽  
A. L. Raiser ◽  
S. H. A. Dourado ◽  
M. de P. R. Torres ◽  
C. R. Andrighetti ◽  

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Felicia Amalia Moo-Koh ◽  
Jairo Cristóbal-Alejo ◽  
María Fé Andrés ◽  
Jesús Martín ◽  
Fernando Reyes ◽  

The nematicidal properties of Trichoderma species have potential for developing safer biocontrol agents. In the present study, 13 native Trichoderma strains from T. citrinoviride, T. ghanense (2 strains), T. harzianum (4), T. koningiopsis, T. simmonsii, and T. virens (4) with nematicidal activity were selected and cultured in potato dextrose broth to obtain a culture filtrate (CF) for each. Each CF was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain organic (EA) and residual filtrate (RF) fractions, which were then tested on second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita in a microdilution assay. The most lethal strains were T. harzianum Th43-14, T. koningiopsis Th41-11, T. ghanense Th02-04, and T. virens Th32-09, which caused 51–100% mortality (%M) of J2s of both nematodes, mainly due to their RF fractions. Liquid chromatography–diode array detector-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the most-active fractions revealed sesquiterpene and polyketide-like metabolites produced by the four active strains. These native Trichoderma strains have a high potential to develop safer natural products for the biocontrol of Meloidogyne species.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Engy A. Mahrous ◽  
Ahmed H. Elosaily ◽  
Abeer A. A. Salama ◽  
Ahmed M. Salama ◽  
Soheir M. El-zalabani

Jatropha integerrima Jacq., family: Euphorbiaceae, is used in India and subtropical Africa to treat different skin conditions. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of J. integerrima leaves extract (JILE) using rat paw edema model. The extract was administered orally (200 and 400 mg/kg) or applied topically as creams at 2.5, 5, and 10% strength. Four hours post-treatment, maximum reduction of edema volume by 63.09% was observed after oral administration of JILE (400 mg/kg) as compared to indomethacin with 60.43%. The extract anti-inflammatory effect was accompanied by a decrease in NO, prostaglandin PGE2, TNF-a and PKC levels by 19, 29.35, 16.9, and 47.83%, respectively. Additionally, topical applications of JILE showed dose dependent reduction in paw edema and resulted in normalized levels of PGE2, TNF-a, and PKC when used as 10% cream. Signs of inflammations were reduced or absent from paw tissue of animals receiving JILE either orally or topically. Finally, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of JILE resulted in the annotation of 133 metabolites including 24 diterpenoids, 19 flavonoids, 10 phenolic acid conjugates, 8 cyclic peptides, 6 phytosterols, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 4 coumarins. Several of the annotated metabolites have known anti-inflammatory activity including vitexin, isovitexin, fraxitin, scopeltin, stigmasterol, and many diterpenoidal derivatives.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Rui Liu ◽  
Ting Zhu ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Zi Wang ◽  
Zhengyan Yang ◽  

AbstractAs a master regulator of the balance between NO signaling and protein S-nitrosylation, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase (GSNOR) is involved in various developmental processes and stress responses. However, the proteins and specific sites that can be S-nitrosylated, especially in microorganisms, and the physiological functions of S-nitrosylated proteins remain unclear. Herein, we show that the ganoderic acid (GA) content in GSNOR-silenced (GSNORi) strains is significantly lower (by 25%) than in wild type (WT) under heat stress (HS). Additionally, silencing GSNOR results in an 80% increase in catalase (CAT) activity, which consequently decreases GA accumulation via inhibition of ROS signaling. The mechanism of GSNOR-mediated control of CAT activity may be via protein S-nitrosylation. In support of this possibility, we show that CAT is S-nitrosylated (as shown via recombinant protein in vitro and via GSNORi strains in vivo). Additionally, Cys (cysteine) 401, Cys642 and Cys653 in CAT are S-nitrosylation sites (assayed via mass spectrometry analysis), and Cys401 may play a pivotal role in CAT activity. These findings indicate a mechanism by which GSNOR responds to stress and regulates secondary metabolite content through protein S-nitrosylation. Our results also define a new S-nitrosylation site and the function of an S-nitrosylated protein regulated by GSNOR in microorganisms.

Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Madita Brauer ◽  
Jennifer Herrmann ◽  
Daniela Zühlke ◽  
Rolf Müller ◽  
Katharina Riedel ◽  

AbstractThe anaerobic, gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile can cause severe forms of enterocolitis which is mainly mediated by the toxins it produces. The RNA polymerase inhibitor Fidaxomicin is the current gold standard for the therapy of C. difficile infections due to several beneficial features including its ability to suppress toxin synthesis in C. difficile. In contrast to the Rifamycins, Fidaxomicin binds to the RNA polymerase switch region, which is also the binding site for Myxopyronin B. Here, serial broth dilution assays were performed to test the susceptibility of C. difficile and other anaerobes to Myxopyronin B, proving that the natural product is considerably active against C. difficile and that there is no cross-resistance between Fidaxomicin and Myxopyronin B in a Fidaxomicin-resistant C. difficile strain. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Myxopyronin B is able to suppress early phase toxin synthesis in C. difficile to the same degree as Fidaxomicin. Conclusively, Myxopyronin B is proposed as a new lead structure for the design of novel antibiotics for the therapy of C. difficile infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 619
Anna Kloska ◽  
Grzegorz M. Cech ◽  
Dariusz Nowicki ◽  
Monika Maciąg-Dorszyńska ◽  
Aleksandra E. Bogucka ◽  

Osmotic changes are common challenges for marine microorganisms. Bacteria have developed numerous ways of dealing with this stress, including reprogramming of global cellular processes. However, specific molecular adaptation mechanisms to osmotic stress have mainly been investigated in terrestrial model bacteria. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the basis of adjustment to prolonged salinity challenges at the proteome level in marine bacteria. The objects of our studies were three representatives of bacteria inhabiting various marine environments, Shewanella baltica, Vibrio harveyi and Aliivibrio fischeri. The proteomic studies were performed with bacteria cultivated in increased and decreased salinity, followed by proteolytic digestion of samples which were then subjected to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We show that bacteria adjust at all levels of their biological processes, from DNA topology through gene expression regulation and proteasome assembly, to transport and cellular metabolism. The finding that many similar adaptation strategies were observed for both low- and high-salinity conditions is particularly striking. The results show that adaptation to salinity challenge involves the accumulation of DNA-binding proteins and increased polyamine uptake. We hypothesize that their function is to coat and protect the nucleoid to counteract adverse changes in DNA topology due to ionic shifts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Silvia Bielsa ◽  
Ana Guitart ◽  
Aureli Esquerda ◽  
Rodrigo Fernández-Pacheco ◽  
Maria Teresa Baranguán ◽  

Abstract Objectives Exposure to silica nanoparticles has been associated with pleural effusions (PEs) in animal models and case series. We hypothesized that some PEs labelled as “idiopathic” could, in fact, be secondary to inhalation of silica. Methods A retrospective case control study was designed utilizing a prospectively maintained pleural database. Cases, represented by idiopathic PEs, were matched by age and gender to control patients who had been diagnosed with malignant, cardiac, or infectious PEs. A survey consisting of questions about occupational life and possibility of silica inhalation was conducted. In a subgroup of patients, pleural fluid concentrations of silica were quantified by plasma atomic emission spectrometry analysis. Also, the pleural biopsy of a silica-exposed case was subjected to an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to identify the mineral, the size of which was determined by electron microscopy. Results A total of 118 patients (59 cases and 59 controls) completed the survey. There were 25 (42%, 95% CI 31–55%) and 13 (22%, 95% CI 13–34%) silica-exposed workers in case and control groups, respectively. The exposure attributable fraction was 0.62 (95% CI 0.14–0.83). Four of eight exposed cases showed detectable levels of silica in the pleural fluid (mean 2.37 mg/L), as compared to none of 16 tested controls. Silica nanoparticles of 6–7 nm were identified in the pleural biopsy of an exposed case patient. Conclusions It is plausible that some idiopathic PEs could actually be caused by occupational silica inhalation.

Lab on a Chip ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Sungho Kim ◽  
Weihua Shi ◽  
Yaoyao Zhao ◽  
Insu Park ◽  

We report on a silicon microfluidic platform that enables integration of transparent μm-scale microfluidic channels, an on-chip pL-volume droplet generator, and a nano-electrospray ionization emitter that enables spatial and temporal phase separation for mass spectrometry analysis.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Devasahayam Arokia Balaya Rex ◽  
Yashwanth Subbannayya ◽  
Prashant Kumar Modi ◽  
Akhina Palollathil ◽  
Lathika Gopalakrishnan ◽  

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 superfamily cytokines, is an endogenous danger signal and a nuclear-associated cytokine. It is one of the essential mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Aberrant IL-33 signaling has been demonstrated to play a defensive role against various infectious and inflammatory diseases. Although the signaling responses mediated by IL-33 have been previously reported, the temporal signaling dynamics are yet to be explored. To this end, we applied quantitative temporal phosphoproteomics analysis to elucidate pathways and proteins induced by IL-33 in THP-1 monocytes. Employing a TMT labeling-based quantitation and titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based phosphopeptide enrichment strategy followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we identified and quantified 9448 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 3392 proteins that showed differential regulation. Of these, 171 protein kinases, 60 phosphatases and 178 transcription factors were regulated at different phases of IL-33 signaling. In addition to the confirmed activation of canonical signaling modules including MAPK, NFκB, PI3K/AKT modules, pathway analysis of the time-dependent phosphorylation dynamics revealed enrichment of several cellular processes, including leukocyte adhesion, response to reactive oxygen species, cell cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and repair pathways. The detailed quantitative phosphoproteomic map of IL-33 signaling will serve as a potentially useful resource to study its function in the context of inflammatory and pathological conditions.

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