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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Eunice Jun ◽  
Melissa Birchfield ◽  
Nicole De Moura ◽  
Jeffrey Heer ◽  
René Just

Data analysis requires translating higher level questions and hypotheses into computable statistical models. We present a mixed-methods study aimed at identifying the steps, considerations, and challenges involved in operationalizing hypotheses into statistical models, a process we refer to as hypothesis formalization . In a formative content analysis of 50 research papers, we find that researchers highlight decomposing a hypothesis into sub-hypotheses, selecting proxy variables, and formulating statistical models based on data collection design as key steps. In a lab study, we find that analysts fixated on implementation and shaped their analyses to fit familiar approaches, even if sub-optimal. In an analysis of software tools, we find that tools provide inconsistent, low-level abstractions that may limit the statistical models analysts use to formalize hypotheses. Based on these observations, we characterize hypothesis formalization as a dual-search process balancing conceptual and statistical considerations constrained by data and computation and discuss implications for future tools.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 276
Helong Yu ◽  
Shimeng Qiao ◽  
Ali Asghar Heidari ◽  
Chunguang Bi ◽  
Huiling Chen

The seagull optimization algorithm (SOA) is a novel swarm intelligence algorithm proposed in recent years. The algorithm has some defects in the search process. To overcome the problem of poor convergence accuracy and easy to fall into local optimality of seagull optimization algorithm, this paper proposed a new variant SOA based on individual disturbance (ID) and attraction-repulsion (AR) strategy, called IDARSOA, which employed ID to enhance the ability to jump out of local optimum and adopted AR to increase the diversity of population and make the exploration of solution space more efficient. The effectiveness of the IDARSOA has been verified using representative comprehensive benchmark functions and six practical engineering optimization problems. The experimental results show that the proposed IDARSOA has the advantages of better convergence accuracy and a strong optimization ability than the original SOA.

Aerospace ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Rui Xu ◽  
Chao Chen ◽  
Siyao Lu ◽  
Zhaoyu Li

Pre-designed spacecraft plans suffer from failure due to the uncertain space environment. In this case, instead of spending a long time waiting for ground control to upload a feasible plan in order to achieve the mission goals, the spacecraft could repair the failed plan while executing another part of the plan. This paper proposes a method called Isolation and Repair Plan Failures (IRPF) for a spaceship with durable, concurrent, and resource-dependent actions. To enable the spacecraft to perform some actions when a plan fails, IRPF separates all defective actions from executable actions in the pre-designed plan according to causal analysis between the failure state and the established plan. Then, to address the competition between operation and repair during the partial execution of the plan, IRPF sets up several regulatory factors associated with the search process for a solution, and then repairs the broken plan within the limits of these factors. Experiments were carried out in simulations of a satellite and a multi-rover system. The results demonstrate that, compared with replanning and other plan-repair methods, IRPF creates an execution plan more quickly and searches for a recovery plan with fewer explored state nodes in a shorter period of time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 1086-1095
O. V. Felde

Linguaculture is a heterogeneous linguacognitive phenomenon that depends on the local area, values, and community, as well as on national and ethno-specifics cultural codes and subcodes of mythology, theology, anthropomorphism, biomorphism, household, commerce, etc. The article introduces the linguacultural corpus of the Northern Angara Region that unites oral and multimedia (polycode) texts of traditional regional linguaculture. The corpus is being developed at the Siberian Federal University and includes empirical material of complex folklore, dialectological, and ethnographic expeditions to Kezhemskiy, Boguchany and Motygino areas. The article describes the basic principles of the corpus, i.e. representativeness, synchronism, and regionality, as well as the thematic, genre, functional, and semantic diversity of oral and polycode texts. Culturally marked oral texts are included in the corpus based on their linguistic and cultural informativeness. The corpus is divided into dialect, folklore, and multimedia subcorpuses of valuable information, which can solve various issues of Russian studies, as well as practical issues of linguacultural ecology. The information search process depends on several parameters: speech and folklore genre, topic, basic concept, and word. The article also contains a comparative analysis with other specialized corpora of oral speech, which revealed prospects for further development and application. The linguacultural corpus of the Northern Angara Region contributes to regional lexicography and other branches of Russian studies, e.g. Siberian linguaculture, language and culture, language and mentality, etc.

Radiant ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 220-227
Aditya Yoga Purnama ◽  
Agnesi Sekarsari Putri ◽  
Ragil Saputri

The philosophy of existentialism emerged driven by the uncertain world conditions due to world wars. So existentialism is present as a thought movement that emphasizes human subjectivity and freedom. This study has a purpose for reflection. Reflection means the process of understanding events in the mind or experience that is owned. This study uses descriptive qualitative research. This study utilizes a literature search. The literature search process begins with key phrases such as “existentialism”, “education” and “awareness”. Man must exist, which means realizing that he exists to control himself and act on his behalf. The philosophy of existentialism talks about human existence, while talking about humans means questioning educational issues. Each person is unique, which is different from one another. Realizing this is important for students, parents, teachers, principals, board members, and all those involved in education. Education is expected to realize the "intensity of awareness" of students. So that they are aware of their responsibility to determine the life they will live themselves.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 46-59
Claudia Costa-De los Reyes ◽  
Silvia Viñán-Ludeña ◽  
María Isabel Vivanco-Villavicencio ◽  
Fernando Moncayo-Serrano

The interest in making research more dynamic within universities has evidenced the need for the creation of research groups. In this sense, the purpose of this article is to establish a relationship between the data obtained from bibliometrics and the profile and interest of Architecture Faculty researchers, to identify research niches that guide their work. This research was carried out through a systematic review and use of scientific production bibliometric tools in the last five years within the architecture domain in the SCOPUS database. The research made used five steps that guided the process: search; evaluation; synthesis; analysis; and monitoring. Through the search process, 1,465 scientific documents were obtained, analyzed with the Bibliometrix web application using indicators that allowed obtaining the results, to connect them to both teaching interests and profiles. The analysis identified that sustainability, design, and energy efficiency are topics of interest and constitute trending topics to promote the work and the constitution of research groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 212
Sridhar Vemulapalli ◽  
Mohtadin Hashemi ◽  
Yuri L. Lyubchenko

The assembly of synaptic protein-DNA complexes by specialized proteins is critical for bringing together two distant sites within a DNA molecule or bridging two DNA molecules. The assembly of such synaptosomes is needed in numerous genetic processes requiring the interactions of two or more sites. The molecular mechanisms by which the protein brings the sites together, enabling the assembly of synaptosomes, remain unknown. Such proteins can utilize sliding, jumping, and segmental transfer pathways proposed for the single-site search process, but none of these pathways explains how the synaptosome assembles. Here we used restriction enzyme SfiI, that requires the assembly of synaptosome for DNA cleavage, as our experimental system and applied time-lapse, high-speed AFM (HS-AFM) to directly visualize the site search process accomplished by the SfiI enzyme. For the single-site SfiI-DNA complexes, we were able to directly visualize such pathways as sliding, jumping, and segmental site transfer. However, within the synaptic looped complexes, we visualized the threading and site-bound segment transfer as the synaptosome-specific search pathways for SfiI. In addition, we visualised sliding and jumping pathways for the loop dissociated complexes. Based on our data, we propose the site-search model for synaptic protein-DNA systems.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Ren Wang ◽  
Mengchu Zhou ◽  
Kaizhou Gao ◽  
Ahmed Alabdulwahab ◽  
Muhyaddin J. Rawa

At present, most popular route navigation systems only use a few sensed or measured attributes to recommend a route. Yet the optimal route considered by drivers needs be based on multiple objectives and multiple attributes. As a result, these existing systems based on a single or few attributes may fail to meet such drivers’ needs. This work proposes a driver preference-based route planning (DPRP) model. It can recommend an optimal route by considering driver preference. We collect drivers’ preferences, and then provide a set of routes for their choice when they need. Next, we present an integrated algorithm to solve DPRP, which speeds up the search process for recommending the best routes. Its computation cost can be reduced by simplifying a road network and removing invalid sub-routes. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (24) ◽  
pp. 3322
Lu-Chuan Ceng ◽  
Jen-Chih Yao ◽  
Yekini Shehu

We propose two Mann-type subgradient-like extra gradient iterations with the line-search procedure for hierarchical variational inequality (HVI) with the common fixed-point problem (CFPP) constraint of finite family of nonexpansive mappings and an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in a real Hilbert space. Our methods include combinations of the Mann iteration method, subgradient extra gradient method with the line-search process, and viscosity approximation method. Under suitable assumptions, we obtain the strong convergence results of sequence of iterates generated by our methods for a solution to HVI with the CFPP constraint.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 1697
Kamil Dworak ◽  
Urszula Boryczka

This article presents the author’s own metaheuristic cryptanalytic attack based on the use of differential cryptanalysis (DC) methods and memetic algorithms (MA) that improve the local search process through simulated annealing (SA). The suggested attack will be verified on a set of ciphertexts generated with the well-known DES (data encryption standard) reduced to six rounds. The aim of the attack is to guess the last encryption subkey, for each of the two characteristics Ω. Knowing the last subkey, it is possible to recreate the complete encryption key and thus decrypt the cryptogram. The suggested approach makes it possible to automatically reject solutions (keys) that represent the worst fitness function, owing to which we are able to significantly reduce the attack search space. The memetic algorithm (MASA) created in such a way will be compared with other metaheuristic techniques suggested in literature, in particular, with the genetic algorithm (NGA) and the classical differential cryptanalysis attack, in terms of consumption of memory and time needed to guess the key. The article also investigated the entropy of MASA and NGA attacks.

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