environmental signals
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Beatriz Casais ◽  
Andreia Teixeira ◽  
Cristina Fernandes

Retail brands were initially introduced as low quality brands with low prices. Currently, customers understand that these brands are valuable price/quality options and have a preference for them. The increased competition among distribution companies have forced retailers to increasingly introduce sustainable practices, including in own brands. This paper analyses the corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication through the packaging of retailers’ products. Following a content analysis of 377 packages of private labels from seven retail chains in Portugal, the authors concluded that there is CSR information in packages disclosing a variety of themes. A survey to 539 consumer indicate that consumer perceptions of CSR in packages correspond to the issues most valued. Health topics and national origin are better perceived and valued, even when they are not the most prevalent themes in packages. Environmental signals are lower perceived and valued, even when a similar or higher prevalence in packages.

E. Fidalgo da Silva ◽  
J. Fong ◽  
A. Roye-Azar ◽  
A. Nadi ◽  
C. Drouillard ◽  

The ability of cells to sense diverse environmental signals, including nutrient availability and conditions of stress, is critical for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to mount an appropriate physiological response. While there is a great deal known about the different biochemical pathways that can detect and relay information from the environment, how these signals are integrated to control progression through the cell cycle is still an expanding area of research. Over the past three decades the proteins Tuberin, Hamartin and TBC1D7 have emerged as a large protein complex called the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. This complex can integrate a wide variety of environmental signals to control a host of cell biology events including protein synthesis, cell cycle, protein transport, cell adhesion, autophagy, and cell growth. Worldwide efforts have revealed many molecular pathways which alter Tuberin post-translationally to convey messages to these important pathways, with most of the focus being on the regulation over protein synthesis. Herein we review the literature supporting that the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex plays a critical role in integrating environmental signals with the core cell cycle machinery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Stephan C. Toby ◽  
Robert A. Duller ◽  
Silvio De Angelis ◽  
Kyle M. Straub

AbstractThe sedimentary record contains unique information about landscape response to environmental forcing at timescales that far exceed landscape observations over human timescales. However, stochastic processes can overprint and shred evidence of environmental signals, such as sediment flux signals, and so inhibit their transfer to strata. Our community currently lacks a quantitative framework to differentiate between environmental signals and autogenic signals in field-scale analysis of strata. Here we develop a framework and workflow to estimate autogenic thresholds for ancient sediment routing systems. Crucially these thresholds can be approximated using measurements that are readily attainable from field systems, circumventing the low temporal resolution offered by strata. This work demonstrates how short-term system dynamics can be accessed from ancient sediment routing systems to place morphodynamic limits on environmental signal propagation across ancient landscapes and into strata.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 658
Alexandre Joushomme ◽  
André Garenne ◽  
Mélody Dufossée ◽  
Rémy Renom ◽  
Hermanus Johannes Ruigrok ◽  

It remains controversial whether exposure to environmental radiofrequency signals (RF) impacts cell status or response to cellular stress such as apoptosis or autophagy. We used two label-free techniques, cellular impedancemetry and Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), to assess the overall cellular response during RF exposure alone, or during co-exposure to RF and chemical treatments known to induce either apoptosis or autophagy. Two human cell lines (SH-SY5Y and HCT116) and two cultures of primary rat cortex cells (astrocytes and co-culture of neurons and glial cells) were exposed to RF using an 1800 MHz carrier wave modulated with various environmental signals (GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications, 2G signal), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 3G signal), LTE (Long-Term Evolution, 4G signal, and Wi-Fi) or unmodulated RF (continuous wave, CW). The specific absorption rates (S.A.R.) used were 1.5 and 6 W/kg during DHM experiments and ranged from 5 to 24 W/kg during the recording of cellular impedance. Cells were continuously exposed for three to five consecutive days while the temporal phenotypic signature of cells behavior was recorded at constant temperature. Statistical analysis of the results does not indicate that RF-EMF exposure impacted the global behavior of healthy, apoptotic, or autophagic cells, even at S.A.R. levels higher than the guidelines, provided that the temperature was kept constant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mihnea R. Mangalea ◽  
Bradley R. Borlee

AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium endemic throughout the tropics causing severe disease in humans and animals. Environmental signals such as the accumulation of inorganic ions mediates the biofilm forming capabilities and survival of B. pseudomallei. We have previously shown that B. pseudomallei responds to nitrate and nitrite by inhibiting biofilm formation and altering cyclic di-GMP signaling. To better understand the roles of nitrate-sensing in the biofilm inhibitory phenotype of B. pseudomallei, we created in-frame deletions of narX (Bp1026b_I1014) and narL (Bp1026b_I1013), which are adjacent components of a conserved nitrate-sensing two-component system. We observed transcriptional downregulation in key components of the biofilm matrix in response to nitrate and nitrite. Some of the most differentially expressed genes were nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) and/or polyketide synthases (PKS) encoding the proteins for the biosynthesis of bactobolin, malleilactone, and syrbactin, and an uncharacterized cryptic NRPS biosynthetic cluster. RNA expression patterns were reversed in ∆narX and ∆narL mutants, suggesting that nitrate sensing is an important checkpoint for regulating the diverse metabolic changes occurring in the biofilm inhibitory phenotype. Moreover, in a macrophage model of infection, ∆narX and ∆narL mutants were attenuated in intracellular replication, suggesting that nitrate sensing contributes to survival in the host.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Ulrike Zentgraf ◽  
Ana Gabriela Andrade-Galan ◽  
Stefan Bieker

AbstractLeaf senescence is an integral part of plant development and is driven by endogenous cues such as leaf or plant age. Developmental senescence aims to maximize the usage of carbon, nitrogen and mineral resources for growth and/or for the sake of the next generation. This requires efficient reallocation of the resources out of the senescing tissue into developing parts of the plant such as new leaves, fruits and seeds. However, premature senescence can be induced by severe and long-lasting biotic or abiotic stress conditions. It serves as an exit strategy to guarantee offspring in an unfavorable environment but is often combined with a trade-off in seed number and quality. In order to coordinate the very complex process of developmental senescence with environmental signals, highly organized networks and regulatory cues have to be in place. Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are involved in senescence as well as in stress signaling. Here, we want to summarize the role of H2O2 as a signaling molecule in leaf senescence and shed more light on how specificity in signaling might be achieved. Altered hydrogen peroxide contents in specific compartments revealed a differential impact of H2O2 produced in different compartments. Arabidopsis lines with lower H2O2 levels in chloroplasts and cytoplasm point to the possibility that not the actual contents but the ratio between the two different compartments is sensed by the plant cells.

2022 ◽  
pp. 161-171
Shubham Sharma ◽  
Haroon Rashid Hakla ◽  
Mohammad Urfan ◽  
Sikander Pal

2021 ◽  
Cameron Lee-Lopez ◽  
Erik T Yukl

Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic gas encountered by bacteria as a product of their own metabolism or as a result of a host immune response. Non-toxic concentrations of NO have been shown to initiate changes in bacterial behaviors such as the transition between planktonic and biofilm-associated lifestyles. The heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding proteins (H-NOX) are a widespread family of bacterial heme-based NO sensors that regulate biofilm formation in response to NO. The presence of H-NOX in several human pathogens combined with the importance of planktonic-biofilm transitions to virulence suggests that H-NOX sensing may be an important virulence factor in these organisms. Here we review the recent data on H-NOX NO signaling pathways with an emphasis on H-NOX homologues from pathogens and commensal organisms. The current state of the field is somewhat ambiguous regarding the role of H-NOX in pathogenesis. However, it is clear that H-NOX regulates biofilm in response to environmental factors and may promote persistence in the environments that serve as reservoirs for these pathogens. Finally, the evidence that large subgroups of H-NOX proteins may sense environmental signals besides NO is discussed within the context of a phylogenetic analysis of this large and diverse family.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Jingjing Wang ◽  
Eiki Kimura ◽  
Maureen Mongan ◽  
Ying Xia

The MAP3K1 is responsible for transmitting signals to activate specific MAP2K-MAPK cascades. Following the initial biochemical characterization, genetic mouse models have taken center stage to elucidate how MAP3K1 regulates biological functions. To that end, mice were generated with the ablation of the entire Map3k1 gene, the kinase domain coding sequences, or ubiquitin ligase domain mutations. Analyses of the mutants identify diverse roles that MAP3K1 plays in embryonic survival, maturation of T/B cells, and development of sensory organs, including eye and ear. Specifically in eye development, Map3k1 loss-of-function was found to be autosomal recessive for congenital eye abnormalities, but became autosomal dominant in combination with Jnk and RhoA mutations. Additionally, Map3k1 mutation increased eye defects with an exposure to environmental agents such as dioxin. Data from eye developmental models reveal the nexus role of MAP3K1 in integrating genetic and environmental signals to control developmental activities. Here, we focus the discussions on recent advances in understanding the signaling mechanisms of MAP3K1 in eye development in mice and in sex differentiation from human genomics findings. The research works featured here lead to a deeper understanding of the in vivo signaling network, the mechanisms of gene–environment interactions, and the relevance of this multifaceted protein kinase in disease etiology and pathogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 12561
Ali ANWAR ◽  
Qianyu ZHAO ◽  
Huimin ZHANG ◽  
Shu ZHANG ◽  
Lilong HE ◽  

Gibberellins (GAs) play a major role in a variety of key plant development processes, especially in promoting seed germination, stem and root growth, and fruit development. DELLA proteins are the core elements in GA signal transduction pathway, which exist in the plant nucleus and belong to the GRAS protein family. DELLA proteins negatively regulate the GA signaling pathway and biosynthesis, inhibiting plant growth. DELLA proteins can also interact with F-box, PIFS, ROS, SCLl3 and other proteins to enhance plant response to various adverse environmental influences such as drought, low and high temperature, heavy metal stresses. In addition, DELLA proteins can also partially regulate plant growth and development through interacting plant hormones such as ABA (abscisic acid), CK (cytokinin), ET (ethylene), BR (brassinosteroid) and JA (jasmine). This review summarized the basic characteristics of DELLA proteins, the transduction of hormone and environmental signals, as well as the regulation of plant growth and developments. DELLA proteins have broad application prospects in modern agricultural production in the future, but the molecular mechanism of DELLA proteins regulating plant growth and development are still unclear, and needs further study.

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