Emotion Word
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2021 ◽  
pp. 026540752110511
Stephanie J Wilson ◽  
Lisa M Jaremka ◽  
Christopher P Fagundes ◽  
Rebecca Andridge ◽  
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser

According to extensive evidence, we-talk—couples’ use of first-person, plural pronouns—predicts better relationship quality and well-being. However, prior work has not distinguished we-talk by its context, which varies widely across studies. Also, little is known about we-talk’s consistency over time. To assess the stability and correlates of we-talk in private versus conversational contexts, 43 married couples’ language was captured during a marital problem discussion and in each partner’s privately recorded thoughts before and after conflict. Participants were asked to describe any current thoughts and feelings in the baseline thought-listing and to focus on their reaction to the conflict itself in the post-conflict sample. Couples repeated this protocol at a second study visit, approximately 1 month later. We-talk in baseline and post-conflict thought-listings was largely uncorrelated with we-talk during conflict discussions, but each form of we-talk was consistent between the two study visits. Their correlates were also distinct: more we-talk during conflict was associated with less hostility during conflict, whereas more baseline we-talk predicted greater closeness in both partners, as well as lower vocally encoded arousal and more positive emotion word use in partners after conflict. These novel data reveal that we-talk can be meaningfully distinguished by its context—whether language is sampled from private thoughts or marital discussions, and whether the study procedure requests relationship talk. Taken together, these variants of we-talk may have unique implications for relationship function and well-being.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (CHI PLAY) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Marcello A. Gómez-Maureira ◽  
Isabelle Kniestedt ◽  
Max van Duijn ◽  
Carolien Rieffe ◽  
Aske Plaat

Video games frequently feature 'open world' environments, designed to motivate exploration. Level design patterns are implemented to invoke curiosity and to guide player behavior. However, evidence of the efficacy of such patterns has remained theoretical. This study presents an empirical study of how level design patterns impact curiosity-driven exploration in a 3D open-world video game. 254 participants played a game in an empirical study using a between-subjects factorial design, testing 4 variables: presence or absence of patterns, goal or open-ended, nature and alien aesthetic, and assured or unassured compensation. Data collection consisted of in-game metrics and emotion word prompts as well as post-game questionnaires. Results show that design patterns invoke heightened exploration, but this effect is influenced by the presence of an explicit goal or monetary compensation. There appear to be many motivations behind exploratory behavior in games, with patterns raising expectations in players. A disposition for curiosity (i.e. 'trait curiosity') was not found to influence exploration. We interpret and discuss the impact of the conditions, individual patterns, and player motivations.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257753
Lison Bouhours ◽  
Anaëlle Camarda ◽  
Monique Ernst ◽  
Anaïs Osmont ◽  
Grégoire Borst ◽  

The aim of the present study is to examine whether in Hot, i.e., affectively charged contexts, or cool, i.e., affectively neutral contexts, inhibitory control capacity increases or decreases under social evaluation in adolescents and adults. In two experiments, adolescents and young adults completed two Stroop-like tasks under either a social evaluation condition or an alone condition. The social evaluation condition comprised the presence of a peer (Experiment 1) or an expert (Experiment 2) playing the role of an evaluator, while under the alone condition, the task was performed alone. In the Cool Stroop task, participants had to refrain from reading color names to identify the ink color in which the words were printed. In the Hot Stroop task, participants had to determine the emotional expression conveyed by faces from the NimStim database while ignoring the emotion word displayed beneath. The results were similar in both experiments. In adolescents, social evaluation by a peer (Experiment 1) or by an expert (Experience 2) facilitated Hot but not cool inhibitory control. In adults, social evaluation had no effect on Hot or cool inhibitory control. The present findings expand our understanding of the favorable influence of socioemotional context on Hot inhibitory control during adolescence in healthy individuals.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Michael Vesker ◽  
Daniela Bahn ◽  
Christina Kauschke ◽  
Gudrun Schwarzer

Abstract Social interactions often require the simultaneous processing of emotions from facial expressions and speech. However, the development of the gaze behavior used for emotion recognition, and the effects of speech perception on the visual encoding of facial expressions is less understood. We therefore conducted a word-primed face categorization experiment, where participants from multiple age groups (six-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) categorized target facial expressions as positive or negative after priming with valence-congruent or -incongruent auditory emotion words, or no words at all. We recorded our participants’ gaze behavior during this task using an eye-tracker, and analyzed the data with respect to the fixation time toward the eyes and mouth regions of faces, as well as the time until participants made the first fixation within those regions (time to first fixation, TTFF). We found that the six-year-olds showed significantly higher accuracy in categorizing congruently primed faces compared to the other conditions. The six-year-olds also showed faster response times, shorter total fixation durations, and faster TTFF measures in all primed trials, regardless of congruency, as compared to unprimed trials. We also found that while adults looked first, and longer, at the eyes as compared to the mouth regions of target faces, children did not exhibit this gaze behavior. Our results thus indicate that young children are more sensitive than adults or older children to auditory emotion word primes during the perception of emotional faces, and that the distribution of gaze across the regions of the face changes significantly from childhood to adulthood.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (15) ◽  
pp. 1831
Hyewon Yoon ◽  
Shuyu Li ◽  
Yunsick Sung

Recently, with the development of computer technology, deep learning has expanded to the field of art, which requires creativity, which is a unique ability of humans, and an understanding of the human emotions expressed in art to process them as data. The field of art is integrating with various industrial fields, among which artificial intelligence (AI) is being used in stage art, to create visual images. As it is difficult for a computer to process emotions expressed in songs as data, existing stage background images for song performances are human designed. Recently, research has been conducted to enable AI to design stage background images on behalf of humans. However, there is no research on reflecting emotions contained in song lyrics to stage background images. This paper proposes a style transformation method to reflect emotions in stage background images. First, multiple verses and choruses are derived from song lyrics, one at a time, and emotion words included in each verse and chorus are extracted. Second, the probability distribution of the emotion words is calculated for each verse and chorus, and the image with the most similar probability distribution from an image dataset with emotion word tags in advance is selected for each verse and chorus. Finally, for each verse and chorus, the stage background images with the transferred style are outputted. Through an experiment, the similarity between the stage background and the image transferred to the style of the image with similar emotion words probability distribution was 38%, and the similarity between the stage background image and the image transferred to the style of the image with completely different emotion word probability distribution was 8%. The proposed method reduced the total variation loss of change from 1.0777 to 0.1597. The total variation loss is the sum of content loss and style loss based on weights. This shows that the style transferred image is close to edge information about the content of the input image, and the style is close to the target style image.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 553
Chenggang Wu ◽  
Juan Zhang ◽  
Zhen Yuan

In order to explore the affective priming effect of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words, the current study used unmasked (Experiment 1) and masked (Experiment 2) priming paradigm by including emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, anger) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, gift) as primes and examined how the two kinds of words acted upon the processing of the target words (all emotion-laden words). Participants were instructed to decide the valence of target words, and their electroencephalogram was recorded at the same time. The behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) results showed that positive words produced a priming effect whereas negative words inhibited target word processing (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, the inhibition effect of negative emotion-label words on emotion word recognition was found in both behavioral and ERP results, suggesting that modulation of emotion word type on emotion word processing could be observed even in the masked priming paradigm. The two experiments further supported the necessity of defining emotion words under an emotion word type perspective. The implications of the findings are proffered. Specifically, a clear understanding of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words can improve the effectiveness of emotional communications in clinical settings. Theoretically, the emotion word type perspective awaits further explorations and is still at its infancy.

2021 ◽  
Gerlind Grosse ◽  
Berit Streubel ◽  
Catherine Gunzenhauser ◽  
Henrik Saalbach

AbstractLearning to use language in an adult-like way is a long-lasting process. This may particularly apply to complex conceptual domains such as emotions. The present study examined children’s and adults’ patterns of emotion word usage regarding their convergence and underlying semantic dimensions, and the factors influencing the ease of emotion word learning. We assessed the production of emotion words by 4- to 11-year-old children (N = 123) and 27 adults (M = 37 years) using a vignette test. We found that the older the children, the more emotion words they produced. Moreover, with increasing age, children’s pattern of emotion word usage converged with adult usage. The analysis for semantic dimensions revealed one clear criterion—the differentiation of positive versus negative emotions—for all children and adults. We further found that broad covering emotion words are produced earlier and in a more adult-like way.

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