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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 595
Loïc Massin ◽  
Cyril Lahuec ◽  
Fabrice Seguin ◽  
Vincent Nourrit ◽  
Jean-Louis de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye

We present the design, fabrication, and test of a multipurpose integrated circuit (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) in AMS 0.35 µm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology. This circuit is embedded in a scleral contact lens, combined with photodiodes enabling the gaze direction detection when illuminated and wirelessly powered by an eyewear. The gaze direction is determined by means of a centroid computation from the measured photocurrents. The ASIC is used simultaneously to detect specific eye blinking sequences to validate target designations, for instance. Experimental measurements and validation are performed on a scleral contact lens prototype integrating four infrared photodiodes, mounted on a mock-up eyeball, and combined with an artificial eyelid. The eye-tracker has an accuracy of 0.2°, i.e., 2.5 times better than current mobile video-based eye-trackers, and is robust with respect to process variations, operating time, and supply voltage. Variations of the computed gaze direction transmitted to the eyewear, when the eyelid moves, are detected and can be interpreted as commands based on blink duration or using blinks alternation on both eyes.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 547
Anna Lewandowska ◽  
Izabela Rejer ◽  
Kamil Bortko ◽  
Jarosław Jankowski

When reading interesting content or searching for information on a website, the appearance of a pop-up advertisement in the middle of the screen is perceived as irritating by a recipient. Interrupted cognitive processes are considered unwanted by the user but desired by advertising providers. Diverting visual attention away from the main content is intended to focus the user on the appeared disruptive content. Is the attempt to reach the user by any means justified? In this study, we examined the impact of pop-up emotional content on user reactions. For this purpose, a cognitive experiment was designed where a text-reading task was interrupted by two types of affective pictures: positive and negative ones. To measure the changes in user reactions, an eye-tracker (for analysis of eye movements and changes in gaze points) and an iMotion Platform (for analysis of face muscles’ movements) were used. The results confirm the impact of the type of emotional content on users’ reactions during cognitive process interruptions and indicate that the negative impact of cognitive process interruptions on the user can be reduced. The negative content evoked lower cognitive load, narrower visual attention, and lower irritation compared to positive content. These results offer insight on how to provide more efficient Internet advertising.

2022 ◽  
Denise Werchan ◽  
Cassandra Hendrix ◽  
Amy May Hume ◽  
Moriah E Thomason ◽  
Natalie Hiromi Brito

Here we evaluate longitudinal neurodevelopmental trajectories across the first postnatal year in infants of mothers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic during pregnancy. Ninety-three pregnant mothers were recruited beginning at the first peak of the pandemic in New York City, and were oversampled for SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy (n = 36 COVID-19 exposed mothers). At 6 months postpartum, infant attentional processing was measured remotely using an online webcam-linked eye tracker developed for infant remote research in the home environment. At 12 months, infant socioemotional development was evaluated through maternal-report using validated surveys. Results indicated that interactions between maternal depressive symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy were linked with individual differences in infants’ attentional processing at 6 months of age. Specifically, in mothers reporting positive exposure to SARS-CoV-2, higher prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with attentional patterns characterized by increased orienting to salient stimuli, longer looking times, and lower levels of maternal-reported measures of attentional control. In turn, these attentional patterns subsequently predicted socioemotional competence at 12 months, over and beyond individual contributions of prenatal depression, SARS-CoV-2 exposure, or relevant infant or family characteristics. These findings provide preliminary evidence of phenotypic adaptations in attentional processing by infants of mothers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlight infant attentional processing as a relevant early behavioral predictor of longitudinal developmental trajectories.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Yicheng Zhou ◽  
Tuo Sun ◽  
Shunzhi Wen ◽  
Hao Zhong ◽  
Youkai Cui ◽  

Different human-machine collaboration modes and driving simulation tests with the orthogonal method considered are designed for a series of typical intelligent highway landscapes. The feedback of drivers under different interaction modes is evaluated through NASA-LTX questionnaire, driving simulator, eye tracker, and electroencephalograph (EEG). This optimal interaction mode (including voice form, broadcasting timing, and frequency) of each driving assistance scene in CVI (Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure) environment under the conditions of high and low traffic is determined from subjective and objective perspectives. In accordance with feedback of these subjects on each set scene, the voice information structure of each assistance mode plays the most important role on drivers followed by the broadcasting timing and frequency. These broadcasts which provide good effects include scenarios such as various assistance scenes at curves and an early warning timing at a long-distance trip as well as a high early warning frequency; in addition, as for an exit-tip assistance scenario, a voice mode assistance is preferred; and for various speed assistance scenes, the beep mode is better. Furthermore, it is found that, at a higher traffic level but a short-distance trip, an early warning timing is favored generally for various scenes while under a low traffic level, a long-distance early warning timing is better.

Vision ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Rébaï Soret ◽  
Pom Charras ◽  
Christophe Hurter ◽  
Vsevolod Peysakhovich

Recent studies on covert attention suggested that the visual processing of information in front of us is different, depending on whether the information is present in front of us or if it is a reflection of information behind us (mirror information). This difference in processing suggests that we have different processes for directing our attention to objects in front of us (front space) or behind us (rear space). In this study, we investigated the effects of attentional orienting in front and rear space consecutive of visual or auditory endogenous cues. Twenty-one participants performed a modified version of the Posner paradigm in virtual reality during a spaceship discrimination task. An eye tracker integrated into the virtual reality headset was used to make sure that the participants did not move their eyes and used their covert attention. The results show that informative cues produced faster response times than non-informative cues but no impact on target identification was observed. In addition, we observed faster response times when the target occurred in front space rather than in rear space. These results are consistent with an orienting cognitive process differentiation in the front and rear spaces. Several explanations are discussed. No effect was found on subjects’ eye movements, suggesting that participants did not use their overt attention to improve task performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yuzhou Tang ◽  
Xiaodang Peng ◽  
Shiyong Xu ◽  
Mingju Bai ◽  
Lifang Lin ◽  

In order to study the gaze behavior characteristics of drivers in mountainous road sections with limited sight distance, the real vehicle test is carried out by using Smart Eye Pro 5.7 noninvasive eye tracker. Combined with the sight distance change rate theory, 6 typical test representative mountainous sections are selected to study the gaze distribution law and gaze duration of drivers in different mountainous sections. The research shows that when the driver drives on the test section with the most unfavorable sight distance of 44 m, 50 m, and 56 m, the fixation characteristics of “from far to near” are significant, and the long fixation duration accounts for a large proportion of the driver. When the driver drives on the section with the most unfavorable sight distance of more than 70 m, i.e., the sight distance change rate of less than 1.33, the fixation characteristics of “from far to near” disappear. The driver’s fixation stability increases, the fixation freedom increases, and the proportion of medium and long fixation duration decreases. The data analysis provides a theoretical basis for drivers to pass safely in mountainous sections.

T. van Biemen ◽  
R.R.D. Oudejans ◽  
G.J.P. Savelsbergh ◽  
F. Zwenk ◽  
D.L. Mann

In foul decision-making by football referees, visual search is important for gathering task-specific information to determine whether a foul has occurred. Yet, little is known about the visual search behaviours underpinning excellent on-field decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the on-field visual search behaviour of elite and sub-elite football referees when calling a foul during a match. In doing so, we have also compared the accuracy and gaze behaviour for correct and incorrect calls. Elite and sub-elite referees (elite: N = 5, Mage  ±  SD = 29.8 ± 4.7yrs, Mexperience  ±  SD = 14.8 ± 3.7yrs; sub-elite: N = 9, Mage  ±  SD = 23.1 ± 1.6yrs, Mexperience  ±  SD = 8.4 ± 1.8yrs) officiated an actual football game while wearing a mobile eye-tracker, with on-field visual search behaviour compared between skill levels when calling a foul (Nelite = 66; Nsub−elite = 92). Results revealed that elite referees relied on a higher search rate (more fixations of shorter duration) compared to sub-elites, but with no differences in where they allocated their gaze, indicating that elites searched faster but did not necessarily direct gaze towards different locations. Correct decisions were associated with higher gaze entropy (i.e. less structure). In relying on more structured gaze patterns when making incorrect decisions, referees may fail to pick-up information specific to the foul situation. Referee development programmes might benefit by challenging the speed of information pickup but by avoiding pre-determined gaze patterns to improve the interpretation of fouls and increase the decision-making performance of referees.

2021 ◽  
Vol 61 (6) ◽  
pp. 733-739
Adam Orlický ◽  
Alina Mashko ◽  
Josef Mík

The paper deals with the problem of a communication interface between autonomous vehicles (AV) and pedestrians. The introduced methodology for assessing new and existing e-HMI (external HMI) contributes to traffic safety in cities. The methodology is implemented in a pilot experiment with a scenario designed in virtual reality (VR). The simulated scene represents an urban zebra crossing with an approaching autonomous vehicle. The projection is implemented with the help of a head-up display – a headset with a built-in eye tracker. The suggested methodology analyses the pedestrian’s decision making based on the visual cues – the signals displayed on the autonomous vehicle. Furthermore, the decision making is correlated to subjects’ eye behaviour, based on gaze-direction data. The method presented in this paper contributes to the safety of a vehicle-pedestrian communication of autonomous vehicles and is a part of a research that shall further contribute to the design and assessment of external communication interfaces of AV in general.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Gro Horgen Vikesdal ◽  
Helle Kristine Falkenberg ◽  
Mark Mon-Williams ◽  
Patricia Riddell ◽  
Trine Langaas

Developmental dyslexia affects around 5-15% of the population and has a heterogeneous aetiology. Optometric disorders are more prevalent in dyslexic populations but the relationship be- tween eye movement control and dyslexia is not well established. In this study, we investigated whether children with dyslexia show saccadic or fixation deficits and whether these deficits are related to deficits in visual acuity and/or accommodation. Thirty-four children with and without dyslexia were recruited for the project. All participants had an optometric examination and performed a saccade and fixation experiment. We used two eye movement paradigms: the step and the gap task. Eye movements were recorded by an infrared eye-tracker and saccade and fixation parameters were analysed separately. Saccadic latencies, premature saccades, and directional errors were similar between children with dyslexia and typically developing children. In contrast, fixations were significantly less stable in the dyslexic group. Neither saccades nor fixations were associated with deficits in accommodation or visual acuity. Children with dyslexia showed no difficulties in saccadic performance, but their fixation stability was reduced compared to the control group. The reduced fixation stability can be explained by general deficits in the cognitive processes that underpin eye movement control, that have also been found in other neuro-developmental disorders.

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