Behavioural Changes
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Xia ◽  
Ho Cheung William Li ◽  
Peige Song ◽  
Ka Yan Ho ◽  
Yuanhui Luo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Direct associations of tobacco exposure during pregnancy with pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes have been proven. Previous studies suggest that expecting a child provides a valuable opportunity to promote behavioural changes, such as smoking cessation, among the male partners of pregnant women. Thorough understandings of Chinese expectant fathers’ smoking behaviour during the transition to fatherhood is a prerequisite to the development of appropriate interventions to facilitate smoking cessation. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, behaviours and attitudes related to smoking among male partners of pregnant women in China. Methods A descriptive phenomenological approach was adopted. A purposive sample of expectant fathers aged 18 years or older who had a tobacco use history within the past year were recruited at obstetrics and gynaecology clinics and invited to participate in one-to-one, 20–30-min semi-structured interviews. The data analysis followed Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method. Results Twenty-five expectant fathers were interviewed. Four themes were generated: 1) the benefits of smoking and respondents’ misperceptions of the impact of smoking and SHS and neglectful attitude of the impact of smoking, which were given as the major reasons for continuing to smoke; 2) factors contributing to smoking cessation, including concern for the potential health impact of continued smoking on the pregnant partner and baby, the role of being father, and the encouragement to quit from family members; and 3) perceived barriers to smoking cessation, including withdrawal symptoms or cigarette cravings, absence of smoking cessation support, and increasing stress. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the perception, behaviours, and attitudes related to smoking among Chinese expectant fathers. The findings of this study can guide healthcare professionals and policymakers in combining the distribution of educational information about the hazards of SHS for maternal and neonatal health with smoking cessation assistance for expectant fathers through policy initiatives and other types of incentives and programmes targeted to enhance smoking cessation among this population. Trial registration Prospectively registered at clinicaltrial.org (NCT03401021) on 8 Jan 2018.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3685
Author(s):  
Inge Huybrechts ◽  
Nathalie Kliemann ◽  
Olivia Perol ◽  
Anne Cattey-Javouhey ◽  
Nicolas Benech ◽  
...  

Current evidence suggests that 30–50% of cancers are attributable to established lifestyle risk factors. Cancer-screening has been identified as an opportunity for delivering advice on lifestyle behaviour change for cancer prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of promoting advice on the latest evidence-based lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention at the time of colorectal cancer screening at two hospitals in Lyon, France. This feasibility study included 49 patients (20 men and 29 women) who were invited for colonoscopy. Patients received a leaflet with lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention, accompanied with a logbook to plan and monitor their behavioural changes. Feedback from patients, hospital staff, and researchers was received via evaluation questionnaires (n = 26) completed after testing the educational material for at least two weeks and via two focus group discussions (n = 7 and n = 9 respectively) organized at the end of the study. All interviewed patients were interested in lowering their cancer risk, and the majority felt ready to change their lifestyle (88%), although most did not know how to decrease their risk of cancer (61%). All patients found the educational material easy to understand and sufficiently attractive and 50% of the patients reported having achieved at least one of the healthy behaviours recommended within the two weeks following the intervention. All hospital staff and almost all patients (92%) involved found that the screening program and the visits planned for colonoscopy was an appropriate moment to provide them with the educational material. This feasibility study has shown that the content, paper-based format, and time of delivery of the intervention were adequate. Health professionals seem to be willing to provide lifestyle recommendations, and patients appear interested in receiving advice for lowering their cancer risk during screening visits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (SI6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Syukran Kamalruzzaman ◽  
Sharkawi Che Din ◽  
Anuar Mohd Yusof ◽  
Nik Atilla Atasha Shamsuddin

Persuasive technology is an evolving form of behaviour change agent that is becoming more popular with the emergence of social media. In 2020, 81% of Malaysian are active social media users who contribute to the escalation of behavioural changes using online platforms. This paper provides a verifiable review of 10 years of persuasive technology using social media for Malaysian healthcare and behavioural changes with the concern to (1) reviewing the effectiveness of persuasive technology using social media to behaviour changes, (2) outlining the technology methods, research methods, strategies, theories and targeted behaviour (3) stating the issues regarding the studied persuasive technologies and (4) highlighting the future research recommendation. Keywords: Persuasive technology, behavioural change, social media eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2021 The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v6iSI6.3035


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9726
Author(s):  
Hyun Ho Shin ◽  
Carlos Sauer Ayala ◽  
Pastor Pérez-Estigarribia ◽  
Sebastián Grillo ◽  
Leticia Segovia-Cabrera ◽  
...  

Forecasting the dynamics of the number of cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a given population is a challenging task due to behavioural changes which occur over short periods. Planning of hospital resources and containment measures in the near term require a scenario analysis and the use of predictive models to gain insight into possible outcomes for each scenario. In this paper, we present the SEIR-H epidemiological model for the spread dynamics in a given population and the impact of COVID-19 in the local health system. It was developed as an extension of the classic SEIR model to account for required hospital resources and behavioural changes of the population in response to containment measures. Time-varying parameters such as transmissibility are estimated using Bayesian methods, based on the database of reported cases with a moving time-window strategy. The assessment of the model offers reasonable results with estimated parameters and simulations, reflecting the observed dynamics in Paraguay. The proposed model can be used to simulate future scenarios and possible effects of containment strategies, to guide the public institution response based on the available resources in the local health system.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2960
Author(s):  
Julio Martínez-Burnes ◽  
Ramon Muns ◽  
Hugo Barrios-García ◽  
Dina Villanueva-García ◽  
Adriana Domínguez-Oliva ◽  
...  

Parturition is a complex physiological process and involves many hormonal, morphological, physiological, and behavioural changes. Labour is a crucial moment for numerous species and is usually the most painful experience in females. Contrary to the extensive research in humans, there are limited pain studies associated with the birth process in domestic animals. Nonetheless, awareness of parturition has increased among the public, owners, and the scientific community during recent years. Dystocia is a significant factor that increases the level of parturition pain. It is considered less common in polytocous species because newborns’ number and small size might lead to the belief that the parturition process is less painful than in monotocous animal species and humans. This review aims to provide elements of the current knowledge about human labour pain (monotocous species), the relevant contribution of the rat model to human labour pain, and the current clinical and experimental knowledge of parturition pain mechanisms in domestic animals that support the fact that domestic polytocous species also experience pain. Moreover, both for women and domestic animal species, parturition’s pain represents a potential welfare concern, and information on pain indicators and the appropriate analgesic therapy are discussed.


2021 ◽  
pp. 136943322110480
Author(s):  
A.R. Dar ◽  
S. Vijayanand ◽  
M. Anbarasu ◽  
M. Adil Dar

Some of the past studies on cold-formed steel (CFS) battened built-up columns have resulted in the development of new design rules for predicting their axial strengths. However, the main drawbacks of such studies are that they are purely numerical and the numerical models developed for such parametric studies were validated using the test results on similar built-up column configurations, but not the exact ones. Therefore, experimental studies on CFS battened columns comprising of lipped channels are needed for verifying the accuracy of the proposed design rules for CFS battened columns. This paper reports an experimental study performed on CFS built-up battened columns under axial compression. Adequately spaced identical lipped channels in the back-to-back arrangement were used as chords and were connected by batten plates laterally with self-driving screws to form the built-up members. The dimensions of chords were fixed as per the geometric limits given out in the North American Specifications (NAS) for the design of CFS structural members. The sectional compactness of the chords and the overall slenderness of the built-up columns were varied by altering the thickness of the channels and height of the built-up columns, respectively. A total of 20 built-up sections were tested under uniform compression to investigate the behavioural changes in the built-up columns due to these variations. The behaviour assessment was made in terms of peak strengths, load–displacement response and failure modes of the test specimens. The current design standards on CFS structures were used to determine the design strengths and were compared against the test strengths for assessing their adequacy. Furthermore, as discussed in the beginning, the test strengths were used to verify the accuracy of the different relevant proposed design rules in the literature.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 31-36
Author(s):  
Saswati Ray ◽  
Anil Kumar Mishra ◽  
Ajay S. Kalamdhad

2021 ◽  
pp. jnnp-2021-326604
Author(s):  
Melisa Gumus ◽  
Alexandra Santos ◽  
Maria Carmela Tartaglia

Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) is a term attributed to the constellation of symptoms that fail to recover after a concussion. PCS is associated with a variety of symptoms such as headaches, concentration deficits, fatigue, depression and anxiety that have an enormous impact on patients’ lives. There is currently no diagnostic biomarker for PCS. There have been attempts at identifying structural and functional brain changes in patients with PCS, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI), respectively, and relate them to specific PCS symptoms. In this scoping review, we appraised, synthesised and summarised all empirical studies that (1) investigated structural or functional brain changes in PCS using DTI or fMRI, respectively, and (2) assessed behavioural alterations in patients with PCS. We performed a literature search in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and PsycINFO (Ovid) for primary research articles published up to February 2020. We identified 8306 articles and included 45 articles that investigated the relationship between DTI and fMRI parameters and behavioural changes in patients with PCS: 20 diffusion, 20 fMRI studies and 5 papers with both modalities. Most frequently studied structures were the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus in diffusion and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and default mode network in the fMRI literature. Although some white matter and fMRI changes were correlated with cognitive or neuropsychiatric symptoms, there were no consistent, converging findings on the relationship between neuroimaging abnormalities and behavioural changes which could be largely due to the complex and heterogeneous presentation of PCS. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of symptoms in PCS may preclude discovery of one biomarker for all patients. Further research should take advantage of multimodal neuroimaging to better understand the brain–behaviour relationship, with a focus on individual differences rather than on group comparisons.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Feifei Bu ◽  
Andrew Steptoe ◽  
Daisy Fancourt

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant behavioural changes, one of which is increased time spent at home. Although official lockdowns were typically short-term and allowed people to leave their homes for exercise and essential activities, some individuals did not leave their home for prolonged periods due to a range of factors including clinical vulnerability. This study aimed to explore longitudinal patterns of such 'home confinement' across different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, and its associated predictors and mental health outcomes. Methods: Data were from the UCL COVID -19 Social Study. The analytical sample consisted of 25,390 adults in England who were followed up for 17 months from March 2020 to July 2021. Data were analysed using growth mixture models. Results: Our analyses identified three classes of growth trajectories, including one class showing a high level of persistent home confinement (24.8%), one changing class with clear alignment with national containment policy/advice (32.0%), and one class with a persistently low level of confinement (43.1%). A range of factors were found to be associated the class membership of home confinement trajectories, such as age, gender, income, employment status, social relationships and health. The class with a high level of confinement had the highest number of depressive and anxiety symptoms at the end of the follow-up independent of potential confounders. Conclusions: There was substantial heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, a striking proportion of our sample maintained a high level of home confinement over the course of 17 months, even during periods when containment measures were eased or removed and when infection rates were low. They also had the worst mental health outcomes. This group warrants special attention in addressing the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Author(s):  
Kjartan Sarheim Anthun

AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to test if implicit price incentives influence the diagnostic coding of hospital discharges. We estimate if the probability of being coded as a complicated patient was related to a specific price incentive. This paper tests empirically if upcoding can be linked to shifts in patient composition through proxy measures such as age composition, length of stay, readmission rates, mortality- and morbidity of patients. Data about inpatient episodes in Norway in all specialized hospitals in the years 1999–2012 were collected, N = 11 065 330. We examined incentives present in part of the hospital funding system. First, we analyse trends in the proxy measures of diagnostic upcoding: can hospital behavioural changes be seen over time with regards to age composition, readmission rates, length of stay, comorbidity and mortality? Secondly, we examine specific patient groups to see if variations in the price incentive are related to probability of being coded as complicated. In the first years (1999–2003) there was an observed increase in the share of episodes coded as complicated, while the level has become more stable in the years 2004–2012. The analysis showed some indications of upcoding. However, we found no evidence of widespread upcoding fuelled by implicit price incentive, as other issues such as patient characteristics seem to be more important than the price differences. This study adds to previous research by testing individual level predictions. The added value of such analysis is to have better case mix control. We observe the presence of price effects even at individual level.


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