social contacts
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 46-51
Helena Tee ◽  
Agnes Chevalier ◽  
Martin Webber ◽  
Penny Xanthopoulou ◽  
Stefan Priebe ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Laura Fusar-Poli ◽  
Miriam Martinez ◽  
Teresa Surace ◽  
Valeria Meo ◽  
Federica Patania ◽  

The COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted the daily routine of the population worldwide, including autistic people and their caregivers, with severe consequences on mental health. On one hand, the reduced social contacts and the interruption of outpatient and daycare services during the lockdown have represented a real challenge for autistic people and their caregivers. On the other hand, confinement has allowed individuals to spend more time pursuing their interests and stay home with their family members without feeling the pressure of social expectations. The present study aimed to compare the levels of personal wellbeing, family distress, insomnia, and resilience between caregivers of autistic people and caregivers of people with other neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, or relational disabilities. A web survey was completed by 383 participants, of which 141 were primary caregivers of autistic people. We did not find any significant difference between caregivers of autistic and non-autistic people in any of the considered psychological variables. Lower age of the autistic family member and lower resilience levels were significantly associated with higher individual distress in the group of caregivers of autistic people. Our findings do not corroborate the hypothesis that caregivers of autistic individuals have had more severe consequences than other caregivers during the lockdown. However, they confirm the importance of promoting resilient coping strategies in autistic people and their caregivers.

Jonas Klingwort ◽  
Sofie Myriam Marcel Gabrielle De Broe ◽  
Sven Alexander Brocker

IntroductionTo combat and mitigate the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reducing the number of social contacts within a population is highly effective. Non-pharmaceutical policy interventions, e.g. stay-at-home orders, closing schools, universities, and (non-essential) businesses, are expected to decrease pedestrian flows in public areas, leading to reduced social contacts. The extent to which such interventions show the targeted effect is often measured retrospectively by surveying behavioural changes. Approaches that use data generated through mobile phones are hindered by data confidentiality and privacy regulations and complicated by selection effects. Furthermore, access to such sensitive data is limited. However, a complex pandemic situation requires a fast evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduced interventions aiming to reduce social contacts. Location-based sensor systems installed in cities, providing objective measurements of spatial mobility in the form of pedestrian flows, are suited for such a purpose. These devices record changes in a population’s behaviour in real-time, do not have privacy problems as they do not identify persons, and have no selection problems due to ownership of a device. ObjectiveThis work aimed to analyse location-based sensor measurements of pedestrian flows in 49 metropolitan areas at 100 locations in Germany to study whether such technology is suitable for the real-time assessment of behavioural changes during a phase of several different pandemic-related policy interventions. MethodsSpatial mobility data of pedestrian flows was linked with policy interventions using the date as a unique linkage key. Data was visualised to observe potential changes in pedestrian flows before or after interventions. Furthermore, differences in time series of pedestrian counts between the pandemic and the pre-pandemic year were analysed. ResultsThe sensors detected changes in mobility patterns even before policy interventions were enacted. Compared to the pre-pandemic year, pedestrian counts were 85% lower. ConclusionsThe study illustrated the practical value of sensor-based real-time measurements when linked with non-pharmaceutical policy intervention data. This study’s core contribution is that the sensors detected behavioural changes before enacting or loosening non-pharmaceutical policy interventions. Therefore, such technologies should be considered in the future by policymakers for crisis management and policy evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 738
Branislava Stoiljković

Relations among neighbors are a key indicator of the strength of a local social community, contribute to social cohesion and are an important factor in achieving a higher level of social sustainability. On the other hand, the environment in which people live plays an important role in encouraging social contacts and developing relationships between people. In order to establish social interactions between neighbors within a multifamily apartment building (MFAB), it is necessary to provide adequate spaces for communication between residents. This was especially emphasized during the mobility restrictions caused by COVID-19, although this necessity is permanent. This paper analyzes the influence of the physical characteristics of common spaces in MFABs on the quality and intensity of contacts among residents of MFABs in the City of Niš, Serbia. In order to determine the current quality of these spaces as a physical framework for interactions among residents and to identify the wishes of users regarding interactions with neighbors in these spaces before and during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, a survey was conducted. The analysis of the survey results and numerous examples of housing design led to (1) the formation of guidelines for future designs of MFABs and (2) recommendations for redefining the standards regulating the field of housing construction in the region, both applicable during the period of the pandemic and after it.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-324
Sabina Zalewska

In the article I analyze the problem of mental health about children of the generation of "snowflakes". The subject of the article is the problem of child depression affecting the whole family system. The main symptoms of this disease are presented. They are discussed in detail with their impact on family relationships. The main functions of the family were recalled, as they gave the structure for the analysis of narrative tests. A lot of attention was paid to the description of the impact of depression on the life of the whole family, including marriage, contact with children, social contacts, changes in the family's activity and material situation, as well as emotional reactions of family members. The analysis of narrative tests shows the family's reactions to the child's disease.

2022 ◽  
pp. 216769682110655
Miranda P. Dotson ◽  
Elena Maker Castro ◽  
Nina T. Magid ◽  
Lindsay T. Hoyt ◽  
Ahna Ballanoff Suleiman ◽  

We analyzed qualitative data from 707 USA college students aged 18–22 in late April 2020 regarding if and how their relationships had changed at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most (69%) participants experienced relationship changes, most of whom (77%) described negative changes: less overall contact, feeling disconnected, and increased tension, some of which was due to conflict over pandemic-related public health precautions. Physical distancing from social contacts also created emotional distancing: it was harder to maintain affective connections via online platforms and within the isolating context of shelter-in-place. Due to emerging adulthood being a sensitive window for social development, the COVID-19 pandemic-induced emotional distancing could have long-term ramifications for this cohort’s relationships over the course of their lives.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Katarzyna Grebosz-Haring ◽  
Anna K. Schuchter-Wiegand ◽  
Anja C. Feneberg ◽  
Nadine Skoluda ◽  
Urs M. Nater ◽  

Psychobiological responses to music have been examined previously in various naturalistic settings in adults. Choir singing seems to be associated with positive psychobiological outcomes in adults. However, evidence on the effectiveness of singing in children and adolescents is sparse. The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly affecting society now and in the future, including how individuals engage with music. The COVID-19 pandemic is occurring at a time when virtual participation in musical experiences such as singing in a virtual choir has become more prevalent. However, it remains unclear whether virtual singing leads to different responses in comparison with in-person singing. We evaluated the psychobiological effects of in-person choral singing (7 weeks, from January to March 2020, before the COVID-19 outbreak) in comparison with the effects of virtual choral singing (7 weeks, from May to July 2020, after schools partly re-opened in Austria) in a naturalistic pilot within-subject study. A group of children and young adolescents (N = 5, age range 10–13, female = 2) from a school in Salzburg, Austria were recruited to take part in the study. Subjective measures (momentary mood, stress) were taken pre- and post-singing sessions once a week. Additionally, salivary biomarkers (cortisol and alpha-amylase) and quantity of social contacts were assessed pre- and post-singing sessions every second week. Psychological stability, self-esteem, emotional competences, and chronic stress levels were measured at the beginning of in-person singing as well as at the beginning and the end of the virtual singing. We observed a positive impact on mood after both in-person and virtual singing. Over time, in-person singing showed a pre-post decrease in salivary cortisol, while virtual singing showed a moderate increase. Moreover, a greater reduction in stress, positive change in calmness, and higher values of social contacts could be observed for the in-person setting compared to the virtual one. In addition, we observed positive changes in psychological stability, maladaptive emotional competences, chronic stress levels, hair cortisol, self-contingency and quality of life. Our preliminary findings suggest that group singing may provide benefits for children and adolescents. In-person singing in particular seems to have a stronger psychobiological effect.

Fiona Ecarnot ◽  
Stéphane Sanchez ◽  
Gilles Berrut ◽  
Véronique Suissa ◽  
Serge Guérin ◽  

The meaning of place and home for community dwellers and nursing home residents remains unclear. We explored the relationship between older people and their “life territory”, to propose a working definition of this concept, which could be used to orient policy decisions. Individual, semi-structured interviews were performed with older people, nursing home staff, and representatives of local institutions/elected officials in four European countries (France, Belgium, Germany, Italy). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. In total, 54 interviews were performed. Five main themes emerged: (i) working definition of “your life territory” (a multidimensional concept covering individual and collective aspects); (ii) importance of the built environment (e.g., public transport, sidewalks, benches, access ramps); (iii) interactions between nursing homes and the outside community (specifically the need to maintain interactions with the local community); (iv) a sense of integration (dependent on social contacts, seniority in the area, perceived self-utility); and (v) the use of new technologies (to promote integration, social contacts and access to culture). This study found that the “life territory” of older people is a multidimensional concept, centred around five main domains, which together contribute to integrating older people into the fibre of their community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 605 (10) ◽  
pp. 3-16
Jessica Kristin Nowak ◽  
Anna Łukasiak

The aim of this article is to introduce the issue of romanticizing perpetrators by young members of cybersubcultures. Exploring this topic is crucial because this phenomenon has become easily visible recently. The articlecontains initial characteristics of the problem anddrawseducators and parents' attention. This problem is characterized by severe, negative effects, hazardous at present times with limited social contacts. Data obtained by the literature and press reports review method allowed to describe some symptoms of the phenomenon and to define a certain area of ignorance in this field. The analysis showed that the problem of the romanticization of perpetrators by youth cybersubcultures was not directly discussed in the literature or empirically researched. The collected results indicate the need for in-depth exploration of the topic, mainly due to severaladverse effects that the described problemmay have. Some of the preventive recommendations are focusing primarily on strengthening the individual's attitudes and attempts to extinguish the media phenomenon at the same time. It is also crucial to develop precise preventive recommendations in the future.

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