ecological systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 105937
Aaron Deslatte ◽  
Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska ◽  
António F. Tavares ◽  
Justyna Ślawska ◽  
Izabela Karsznia ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Michael Spate ◽  
Mumtaz A. Yatoo ◽  
Dan Penny ◽  
Mohammad Ajmal Shah ◽  
Alison Betts

AbstractA growing body of archaeological research on agro-pastoralist populations of the Inner Asian mountains indicates that these groups adapted various systems of mobile herding and cultivation to ecotopes across the region from as early as 5000 BP. It has been argued that these adaptations allowed the development of flexible social-ecological systems well suited to the long-term management of these mountain landscapes. At present, less attention has been paid to examining the long-term ecological legacy of these adaptations within the sedimentary or palaeoenvironmental record. Here we present sediment, palynomorph and charcoal data that we interpret as indicating agro-pastoralist environmental perturbations, taken from three cores at middle and high altitudes in the Kashmir Valley at the southern end of the Inner Asian mountains. Our data indicate spatially and temporally discontinuous patterns of agro-pastoralist land use beginning close to 4000 BP. Periods of intensification of upland herding are often coincident with phases of regional social or environmental change, in particular we find the strongest signals for agro-pastoralism in the environmental record contemporary with regionally arid conditions. These patterns support previous arguments that specialised agro-pastoralist ecologies across the region are well placed to respond to past and future climate deteriorations. Our data indicating long-term co-evolution of humans and landscape in the study area also have implications for the ongoing management of environments generally perceived as “pristine” or “wilderness”.

Татьяна Николаевна Ворожцова ◽  
Дмитрий Вячеславович Пестерев ◽  
Владимир Русланович Кузьмин

В статье рассматриваются возможности применения семантического моделирования, включающего, в частности, онтологическое и когнитивное моделирование для поддержки совместных исследований энергетических и социо-экологических систем. Работа посвящена использованию онтологического инжиниринга для структурирования знаний предметных областей и когнитивного моделирования в исследованиях влияния функционирования энергетических объектов на природную среду и человека. Онтологическое моделирование используется для выявления, описания и согласования базовых понятий предметных областей исследований и позволяет систематизировать и наглядно представить взаимосвязи между элементами природной среды, объектами энергетики и их характеристиками, факторами воздействия и методами их расчета. Когнитивное моделирование используется для выявления структуры причинно-следственных связей между факторами, влияющими на устойчивость системы. The article discusses the possibilities of applying semantic modeling, including, in particular, ontological and cognitive modeling to support joint research of energy and socio-ecological systems. The work is devoted to the use of ontological engineering for structuring knowledge of subject areas and cognitive modeling in studies of the impact of the functioning of energy facilities on the natural environment and humans. Ontological modeling is used to identify, describe and coordinate the basic concepts of subject areas of research and allows you to systematize and visualize the relationship between elements of the natural environment, energy facilities and their characteristics, impact factors and methods of their calculation. Cognitive modeling is used to identify the structure of causal relationships between factors affecting the stability of the system.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Gideon Grafi ◽  
Jeevan R. Singiri

The seed is the fundamental unit of the dispersal of dry, dehiscent fruits, in which the fruit splits open at maturity to allow for seed dispersal. However, dry fruits may be indehiscent and therefore represent the dispersal unit (DU). Cereals possess a one-seeded fruit, whereby the seed coat and the fruit coat are fused together to generate the caryopsis. This caryopsis may be covered by floral bracts to generate two types of DUs, namely florets, whereby the caryopsis is enclosed by the lemma and the palea (e.g., Avenasterilis) or spikelet, whereby the floret(s) is further covered by the glumes (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides). Here, we highlight the dead coverings enclosing the caryopsis in cereals, namely the husks as an integral component of the dispersal unit that play multifaceted roles in grain biology. Thus, besides protection and dispersal means, the husks function as a rich maternal supply of proteins and metabolites for enhancing growth and development, combat potential pathogens as well as confer tolerance to abiotic stresses. These attributes might have broad implications for crop performance, plant population dynamics and diversity in ecological systems, and for conservation of genetic resources in seed banks.

2022 ◽  
Shadisadat Esmaeili ◽  
Alan Hastings ◽  
Karen C. Abbott ◽  
Jonathan Machta ◽  
Vahini Reddy Nareddy

Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Kevin J. Holohan

What can esoteric knowledge and spiritual practices from the East teach us about the deep psychological roots of domination and hierarchy? In what ways have ancient Buddhist sages acted as anarchist exemplars and deep ecologists long before these traditions began in the West? How might these anarchistic spiritual traditions inform our approaches to work in education, expand our notions of community, help us navigate ecological collapse, and contribute to our efforts to sustain living systems and rekindle our connection to the myriad sentient inhabitants of the places we live beyond the reaches of capital and the State? This paper will examine the anti-doctrine doctrine of Zen Buddhism as a concrete and embodied system of thought and practice for seeing through the delusions of the ego and the psychological and cultural conditioning these delusions engender. What will also be acknowledged is the general lack of attention this spiritual tradition has given to the capitalistic, authoritarian, and anti-ecological systems that tap into and flow from these delusions. It will be argued that these experiential approaches to overcoming the tyranny of the ego have significant implications for loosening the grip of hierarchical thinking, capitalist hyper-consumption, centralized systems of obedience and command, and human destruction of the biosphere.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Robin Goodwin ◽  
Menachem Ben-Ezra ◽  
Masahito Takahashi ◽  
Lan-Anh Nguyen Luu ◽  
Krisztina Borsfay ◽  

AbstractThe spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to rapid vaccine development. However, there remains considerable vaccine hesitancy in some countries. We investigate vaccine willingness in three nations with very different vaccine histories: Israel, Japan and Hungary. Employing an ecological-systems approach we analyse associations between health status, individual cognitions, norms, trust in government, COVID-19 myths and willingness to be vaccinated, with data from three nationally representative samples (Israel, Jan. 2021, N = 1011; Japan, Feb. 2021, N = 997; Hungary, April 2021, N = 1130). Vaccine willingness was higher in Israel (74%) than Japan (51%) or Hungary (31%). In all three countries vaccine willingness was greatest amongst who would regret not being vaccinated and respondents who trusted their government. Multi-group latent class analysis identified three groups of COVID myths, with particular concern about alteration of DNA (Israel), allergies (Hungary) and infection from the vaccine (Japan). Intervention campaigns should address such cultural myths while emphasising both individual and social benefits of vaccination.

2022 ◽  
Nazirhan Gadzhiev ◽  
Sergey Konovalenko ◽  
Mihail Trofimov

The monograph is devoted to the place and role of ecology and environmental safety in ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of society. In the conditions of the forced transition of the economies of the leading countries of the world from an industrial type to a new formation of a green economy aimed at ensuring the preservation of ecological systems and the maximum reduction of damage to the biodiversity of ecological systems, the Russian Federation faces the task of forming a new course of socio-economic development of society focused on the preservation of natural potential and ecology at a level normal for the maintenance of the vital activity of society, flora and fauna in the foreseeable future and in the long term. The role and importance of environmental safety in the system of ensuring the economic security of the state are outlined, the concept of the ideology of "Global Commons" in ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of society is considered, the problems and prospects of the implementation of the program "Green Course of Russia" are analyzed, special aspects of environmental audit, accounting and control, damage assessment in the field of ecology are investigated. Special attention is paid to the forecast of the dynamics of key environmental indicators for the medium term. The main directions of increasing the effectiveness of the mechanism for ensuring environmental safety in a market economy are proposed. For a wide range of readers interested in environmental economics. It will be useful for students, postgraduates and teachers of economic universities.

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