Physical And Chemical Characteristics
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 157-164
Bogdan Zamfirescu ◽  
Dorel Hoza ◽  
Madalina Butac ◽  
Mihai Chivu

This paper investigated physical and chemical characteristics of five cultivars (‘Andreea’, ‘Piteștean’, ‘Romanța’, ‘Čačanska Lepotiča’ and ‘Jojo’) influenced by seven rootstocks (‘Mirobolan dwarf’, ‘Mirodad 1’, ‘Mirodad 2’, ‘Adaptabil’, ‘Redutabil’, ‘BN4Kr’ and ’B83-8’. The trees were planted in 2015 at 4 x 3 m and comprised 3 trees / 3 replications. Physical (weight, colour and firmness) and chemical attributes (soluble solids, acid content and pH) were evaluated and calculated. The influence of rootstocks on the fruit’s quality was very variable due to complex interactions: rootstock x cultivar, rootstock x year, cultivar x rootstock, cultivar x year. As results of the investigations, we found that some traits such as fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids and acid content of fruits have been influenced by rootstocks. ‘Adaptabil’ and ‘Mirodad 1’ rootstocks had a positive effect on some fruit attributes of all plum cultivars studied and can be recommended for extended in commercial orchards.

2021 ◽  
Renfan Liang ◽  
Yicheng Su ◽  
Xiaojuan Qin ◽  
Zhongkui Gao ◽  
Zhixin Fu ◽  

Abstract Background: Hami melon (Cucumis melo var. saccharinus) is a popular fruit in China noted for its excellent taste, which is largely determined by its physical and chemical characteristics, including flesh texture, sugar content, aroma, and nutrient composition. However, the mechanisms through which the associated with these characteristics are regulated have not yet been sufficiently determined. In this study, we monitored changes in the fruits of two germplasms differing in physical and chemical characteristics throughout the period of fruit development. Results: Ripe fruit of the bred variety ‘Guimi’ had significantly higher soluble sugar contents than the fruit of the common variety ‘Yaolong’, whereas differences in fruit shape and color between these two germplasms were observed during the course of development. Comparative transcriptome analysis, conducted to identify regulators and pathways underlying the observed differences at corresponding stages of development, revealed a higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Guimi than in Yaolong. Moreover, most of the DEGs detected during early fruit development of Guimi were associated with cell wall biogenesis. Temporal analysis of the identified DEGs revealed similar trends in the enrichment of downregulated genes in both germplasms, although there were certain differences in the enrichment trends of upregulated genes. Further analyses revealed trends in the differential changes of multiple genes involved in cell wall biogenesis and sugar metabolism during fruit ripening.Conclusions: We were thus able to identify a number of genes associated with the ripening of Hami melon, which will accordingly provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of fruit characteristics in these melons.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2131 (2) ◽  
pp. 022024
D N Kuimov ◽  
M S Minkin

Abstract The article presents the results of the analytical review of the work on the possibility of using cellulose to improve the physical and chemical characteristics of various materials, including paper, cardboard, plastic and others. Unique chemical and physical properties of nanocellulose are shown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 63
Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

Brown rice has physical and sensory characteristics that are less favorable despite its high content of nutrition and phytochemical. The germination process is one way to improve and increase the acceptance of brown rice. The objective research was to determine germination time and varieties of brown rice on the physical and chemical characteristics of germinated brown rice. The research was conducted in RAL with 2 factors, germination time (24, 48, and 72 hours) and rice varieties (Mentik susu, Ciherang, and Pandan wangi). The data obtained were processed with analysis of variance to determine the effect of treatment on the parameters tested. If the effect is significant, then to determine the difference between treatments, a Tukey test is performed. Germination time of 24, 48, and 72 hours affected the color, germination, weight, dimensions of lenght, width, and thickness, bulk density, hydration capacity and swelling of germinated brown rice var. Mentik susu, Ciherang, and Pandan wangi. Germination time of 24, 48, 72 hours affected the chemical composition of BCG var. Mentik susu, Ciherang, and Pandan wangi. Based on observations of the physical and chemical characteristics of BCG var. Mentik susu, Ciherang, and Pandan wangi, germination time of 48 hours is recommended to do the germination with germination time of 48 hours compared to germination time of 24 and 72 hours.

2021 ◽  
Montazer K. Mensoor

Abstract The current study aimed at exploring and identifying pollution indicators of the Tigris River in Baghdad through studying physical and chemical characteristics. Monthly water samples were collected from four locations along the Tigris River in Baghdad for 12 months period. The studied characteristics of the current study included surface water temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, nitrate, and Sulphate. The results showed that the mean values of all the studied physical and chemical characteristics except pH, temperature, and phosphate were higher than the acceptable limits of the Iraqi river water guidelines and international standards. The current study concluded that the Tigris River water was heavily polluted from untreated sewage discharge and other industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities. The study recommended immediate measures to be taken to end the nonstop inflow of sewage and wastes into the Tigris River water from the residential, commercial, and institutional activities in Baghdad.

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