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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Rebecca Coughlan ◽  
Siobhan Moane ◽  
Tracey Larkin

The low saturated fatty acid content of rapeseed oil has resulted in it being classed as one of the most health-benefiting culinary oils. This study determines whether Irish rapeseed oils contain identical fatty acid profiles or whether distinct profiles exist between producers and producers’ successive oil batches. The fatty acid content of Irish rapeseed oils was determined in terms of the desirable MUFA and PUFA and saturated content of these oils. The fatty acid composition demonstrated significant differences in individual unsaturated fatty acid content, while total saturation had insignificant differences. Saturated fatty acid content ranged from 6.10 to 15.8%, while unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 84.20 to 90.10%. Moreover, individual fatty acid content exhibited significant differences ( p < 0.05 ). Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and stearic acid (C18:0) contents were considered significantly different from other fatty acids detected. The third successive batch from each producer exhibited lower oleic acid content, and the third batch contained higher linoleic acid content, at the same time maintaining a desirable unsaturated fatty acid composition. Studies suggest that differences in the fatty acid composition may be due to cultivation practices such as climate, soil composition, sowing and harvesting, processing techniques, and oxidation reactions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 723
Author(s):  
Abdel Wahab M. Mahmoud ◽  
Mahmoud M. Samy ◽  
Hoda Sany ◽  
Rasha R. Eid ◽  
Hassan M. Rashad ◽  
...  

Salinity is one of the main environmental stresses, and it affects potato growth and productivity in arid and semiarid regions by disturbing physiological process, such as the photosynthesis rate, the absorption of essential nutrients and water, plant hormonal functions, and vital metabolic pathways. Few studies are available on the application of combined nanomaterials to mitigate salinity stress on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diamont). In order to assess the effects of the sole or combined application of silicon (Si) and potassium (K) nanoparticles and biochar (Bc) on the agro-physiological properties and biochemical constituents of potato plants grown in saline soil, two open-field experiments were executed on a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with five replicates. The results show that the biochar application and nanoelements (n-K and n-Si) significantly improved the plant heights, the fresh and dry plant biomasses, the numbers of stems/plant, the leaf relative water content, the leaf chlorophyll content, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the leaf stomatal conductance (Gc), and the tuber yields, compared to the untreated potato plants (CT). Moreover, the nanoelements and biochar improved the content of the endogenous elements of the plant tissues (N, P, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, and B), the leaf proline, and the leaf gibberellic acid (GA3), in addition to reducing the leaf abscisic acid content (ABA), the activity of catalase (CAT), and the peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the leaves of salt-stressed potato plants. The combined treatment achieved maximum plant growth parameters, physiological parameters, and nutrient concentrations, and minimum transpiration rates (Tr), leaf abscisic acid content (ABA), and activities of the leaf antioxidant enzymes (CAT, POD, and PPO). Furthermore, the combined treatment also showed the highest tuber yield and tuber quality, including the contents of carbohydrates, proteins, and the endogenous nutrients of the tuber tissues (N, P, and K), and the lowest starch content. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation showed that the plant growth and the tuber yields of potato plants significantly and positively correlated with the photosynthesis rate, the internal CO2 concentration, the relative water content, the proline, the chlorophyll content, and the GA3, and that they were negatively correlated with the leaf Na content, PPO, CAT, ABA, MDA, and Tr. It might be concluded that nanoelement (n-K and n-Si) and biochar applications are a promising method to enhance the plant growth and crop productivity of potato plants grown under salinity conditions.


Author(s):  
Nguyen Phuoc Minh

Gboma eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) has low calorie, high phenolic and antioxidant, excellent dietary fibre and mineral content. Besides healthy effects, gboma eggplant also contained numerous anti-nutrients unbeneficial for human health. Due to high moisture content, gboma eggplant was highly perishable during post-harvest. This research observed the changes of nutritional proximate, mineral contents, acidification indexes, anti-nutrients, phytochemical and antioxidant properties, texture profiles, microbiological characteristics of both raw and pickled gboma eggplant. Gboma eggplant fruits were soaked in clean water for 2 minutes before cutting their calyx lobes. The pre-treated fruits were submerged in sterilized brine (5% salt) for 8 days. Periodically, pickled samples were taken to examine physicochemical, anti-nutritional, and microbiological attributes of pickled gboma eggplant. Results showed that nutritional proximate of moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrate was varied slightly during fermentation. There was a decreasing trend of moisture and carbohydrate; meanwhile, there was an increasing trend of ash, protein, fibre during 8 days of fermentation. There was no significant difference of fat during pickling. There was a minor increment of mineral contents in all samples. There was accumulation of phenyllactic acid, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity with exception of pH. Anti-nutrient contents like tannin, phytate, oxalate, steroidal glycoalkaloid greatly decreased in raw and pickled eggplant. Remarkable increments of total phenolic, flavonoid, DPPH free radical scavenging and FRAP ferric reducing antioxidant of raw and pickled eggplant was presented. Texture profiles of hardness, crispness, fracturability, crunchiness revealed a minor reduction of sensory scores during 8 days of fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus significantly proliferated; meanwhile, Micrococcus and S. aureus were absolutely retarded in pickled eggplant. Yeast and fungi increased in the first 4 days and decreased afterwards. There was no significant difference of proximate compositions; mineral contents; phenyllactic acid, ascorbic acid content, pH and titratable acidity; anti-nutritional contents; phytochemical and antioxidant properties; texture profile (sensory score); microbiological load (with exception of S. aureus) between pickled gloma eggplants at day 6th and day 8th of fermentation. At a quick glance, the length of fermentation could be shorted to 6 days instead of 8 days. However, at the 6th day, S. aureus load was still presented at 0.33±0.01 log CFU/g. The fermentation should be lasted to 8th day so that S. aureus load could be dropped down to zero to ensure microbial food safety. Raw gboma eggplant should be fermented in 8% brine solution for 8 days to obtain the best physicochemical, anti-nutritional, and microbiological properties of pickle. Findings of this research suggested that fermentation pickling would be an appropriate approach to improve nutritional, physicochemical and functional criteria while controlling toxic chemical residues, retarding the growth and proliferation of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 170-176
Author(s):  
H.W. Deshpande ◽  
◽  
S.D. Katke ◽  
A. Poshadri ◽  
◽  
...  

Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the survival probiotic organisms and its influence on the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of sweet orange juice. Methodology: Two samples of probiotic juice were prepared with 10 percent innoculum containing LAB strains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum). Sample A (without encapsulated strains) and Sample-B (with encapsulated strains) were prepared and incubated for 10hrs at 35oC. After incubation, the physico-chemical analysis of both the samples were analyzed for TSS, pH, acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content. Results: The results of TSS, pH, acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content for sample –A and Sample –B were 11.4˚Brix, 3.51, 0.82 percent, 6.1 percent, 1.5 percent, 4.6 percent, 40mgml-1 and 11.6˚ Brix, 3.68, 0.77 percent, 6.4 percent, 1.7 percent, 4.9 percent, 40 mg ml-1, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that overall acceptance of probiotic juice containing encapsulated strains and free strains in the first week was 8.3 and 7.8, respectively. Even after 4 weeks of storage, the overall acceptance for juice with encapsulated strains was better than free strains with a score of 7.5 and 7.0 at the end of storage period. Interpretation: The sweet orange juice with encapsulated strains has high viable cell count (109cfu ml-1) even after 4 weeks of storage resulted in stable therapeutic probiotic sweet orange juice. It is further, suitable for commercial production of probiotic sweet orange juice with probiotic cultures.


Author(s):  
P.R. Davara ◽  
A.K. Varshney ◽  
V.P. Sangani ◽  
P.P. Vora

Background: Prickly pear juices are considered as valuable ingredient for sports and energy drinks due to its higher amino acids contents, minerals and attractive red color. Hence, prickly pear fruit has received renewed interest for the production of juice. Up to date, relatively little work has been reported regarding the manufacturing of prickly pear products. Enzyme has proved to be the key element for producing clear and stable fruit juice. The present study aimed to optimize the processing parameters for enzymatic clarification of prickly pear juice. The results of this investigation are expected to provide the suitable process technology for the production of prickly pear juice with better retention of betalain content and color value. Methods: Prickly pear pulp was treated with pectinase enzyme at different concentrations (0.01-0.09%), incubation temperatures (40-60°C) and incubation time (60-180 min). The effect of enzymatic treatments on clarity, color index, betalain content and ascorbic acid content of juice were studied through response surface methodology by employing second order central composite rotatable design. Result: Response surface analysis determined the optimum condition for clarifying prickly pear juice as 0.036% enzyme concentration, 46°C incubation temperature and 112 min incubation time. At this condition, it was predicted to produce the prickly pear juice with clarity of 48.59% T, color index of 0.603 abs, betalain content of 542.93 mg/L of juice and ascorbic acid content of 9.35 mg/100 g with the desirability of 0.780.


Author(s):  
Dilşat Bozdoğan Konuşkan

There are 97 local olive varieties registered in our country, and Saurani is an olive variety from originating Hatay/Altınözü. Hatay province, which ranks first in olive production in the Mediterranean Region, has very suitable climate and soil conditions for olive cultivation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of olive maturity on quality parameters such as free fatty acids, peroxide value and fatty acid composition of the oil obtained from the Saurani olive variety grown in Hatay. For this purpose, olive oil was obtained by mechanical method from olives collected from Saurani variety in 3 different maturity periods of the 2020 production season. In Saurani olive oil, free fatty acids and peroxide numbers were found in the range of 0.62-0.91 % (oleic acid) and 3.68-5.26 meq O2/kg respectively. The amount of free fatty acids increased with maturity. In Saurani olive oil were determined oleic acid in the range of 66.32%-68.79%, palmitic acid in the range of12.47-13.75%, linoleic acid in the range of 11.43-13.84%, stearic acid in the range of 3.16-3.42%, palmitoleic acid 1.12%-1.34%, linolenic acid 0.88-1.01% and arachidic acid 0.41-0.52. It was determined that decrease in oleic acid content and an increase in linoleic acid content with maturity. It has been determined that Saurani olive oil is within the limits specified in the Turkish Food Codex on Olive Oil and Pirina Olive Oil in terms of the examined properties.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
José Pérez ◽  
Karina Gómez ◽  
Lorena Vega

Watermelon rind was used for the pectin extraction with citric acid as the extractant solvent. The effects of pH (2.0-3.0), extraction time (45-75 min), and liquid-solid ratio (10 : 1 to 40 : 1 mL/g) on the pectin yield, degree of esterification, methoxyl content, and anhydrouronic acid content were investigated using Box-Behnken surface response experimental design. The pH was the most significant variable for the pectin yield and properties. The responses optimized separately showed different optimal conditions for each one of the variables studied in this work. Therefore, the desirability function was used to determine the sole theoretical optimum for the highest pectin yield and highest anhydrouronic acid content, which was found to be pH of 2.0, extraction time of 62.31 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 35.07 mL/g. Under this optimal condition, the pectin yield, degree of esterification, methoxyl content, and anhydrouronic acid content were 24.30%, 73.30%, 10.45%, and 81.33%, respectively. At optimal conditions, watermelon rind pectin can be classified as high methoxyl and rapid-set pectin with high quality and high purity. Practical Applications. This study evaluated the pectin extraction from watermelon rind and carried out an optimization of multiple responses as a function of pH, time, and liquid-solid ratio to obtain the best preliminary quality parameters (pectin yield and anhydrouronic acid content). The results revealed that watermelon rind waste can be an inexpensive source to obtain good pectin quality and high purity. According to the chemical characterization and physicochemical properties studied, the extracted pectin from watermelon rind would have a high potential to be used in food industry.


Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Author(s):  
Muhammad Aaqil Khan ◽  
Muhammad Imran ◽  
Shifa Shaffique ◽  
Eun-Hae Kwon ◽  
Sang-Mo Kang ◽  
...  

The use of commercial food waste in the Korean agricultural industry is increasing due to its capacity to act as an ecofriendly fertilizer. However, the high salt content of food waste can be detrimental to plant health and increase salinity levels in agricultural fields. In the current study, we introduced halotolerant rhizobacteria to neutralize the negative impact of food waste-related salt stress on crop productivity. We isolated halotolerant rhizobacteria from plants at Pohang beach, and screened bacterial isolates for their plant growth-promoting traits and salt stress-mitigating capacity; consequently, the bacterial isolate Bacillus pumilus MAK9 was selected for further investigation. This isolate showed higher salt stress tolerance and produced indole-3-acetic acid along with other organic acids. Furthermore, the inoculation of B. pumilus MAK9 into Chinese cabbage plants alleviated the effects of salt stress and enhanced plant growth parameters, i.e., it increased shoot length (32%), root length (41%), fresh weight (18%), dry weight (35%), and chlorophyll content (13%) compared with such measurements in plants treated with food waste only (control). Moreover, relative to control plants, inoculated plants showed significantly decreased abscisic acid content (2-fold) and increased salicylic acid content (11.70%). Bacillus pumilus MAK9-inoculated Chinese cabbage plants also showed a significant decrease in glutathione (11%), polyphenol oxidase (17%), and superoxide anions (18%), but an increase in catalase (14%), peroxidase (19%), and total protein content (26%) in comparison to the levels in control plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis showed that B. pumilus MAK9-inoculated plants had higher calcium (3%), potassium (22%), and phosphorus (15%) levels, whereas sodium content (7%) declined compared with that in control plants. Similarly, increases in glucose (17%), fructose (11%), and sucrose (14%) contents were recorded in B. pumilus MAK9-inoculated plants relative to in control plants. The bacterial isolate MAK9 was confirmed as B. pumilus using 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, the use of commercially powered food waste could be a climate-friendly agricultural practice when rhizobacteria that enhance tolerance to salinity stress are also added to plants.


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