Brown Rice
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Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2779
Author(s):  
Huei-Ju Wang ◽  
Lin Chang ◽  
Yu-Shiun Lin

Germinated brown rice (GBR) is brown rice (BR) that has been germinated. GBR accumulates more nutrients and has a softer texture than BR. The aim of this study was to ferment GBR and BR using Bacillus natto and to investigate the functionality of the fermented products compared with white rice (WR) as a control. After fermentation with B. natto, the crude ash, total essential amino acids, and fat contents of each sample increased, while the crude protein content decreased. Moreover, the γ-aminobutyric acid and γ-oryzanol contents decreased, while the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging increased significantly in all fermented samples. The nattokinase activity (FU/g) of the fermented products was highest for GBR (43.11), followed by BR (19.62), and lowest for WR (12.24). Collectively, these results indicate that GBR fermented with B. natto yields better nutritional value and functional properties than fermented BR or WR.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2658
Author(s):  
Tao Wang ◽  
Nana She ◽  
Mengnan Wang ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Jiaxing Qin ◽  
...  

The effects of storage temperature on the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice were investigated in this study. The samples were vacuum-packed in nylon/polyethylene pouches and stored at 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C for 12 weeks. The moisture content decreased as storage time was prolonged. Rice stored at 15 °C and 25 °C had a lower falling range of water content compared to the samples stored at 35 °C. Free fatty acid values increased fastest when samples were stored at a high temperature, and the rise can be effectively delayed at low temperatures. The pH of residual cooking water and adhesiveness decreased, while the heating water absorption rate and hardness increased during storage for red and brown rice. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results indicate that water molecules migrated, the binding force of H protons became stronger and the bonds between molecules became closer with increased storage duration. Temperature had an obvious correlation with starch granules and protein structure, characterized by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Low temperatures significantly retarded those changes. The results indicate that storage temperature is a vital factor affecting the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice and provided reference and theoretical basis for the actual storage of red brown rice.


2021 ◽  
pp. 107353
Author(s):  
Yuchao Fan ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  
Chaochao Yin ◽  
Shaoyun Song ◽  
Deguo Wang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 118590
Author(s):  
Yi Jiang ◽  
Hang Zhou ◽  
Jiao-Feng Gu ◽  
Peng Zeng ◽  
Bo-Han Liao ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 630-638
Author(s):  
Salawati Salawati ◽  
Sjarifuddin Ende ◽  
Mohammad Basir ◽  
Indrianto Kadekoh ◽  
Abdul Rahim Thaha

Zn levels in rice are essential for maintaining consumer health. However, Zn deficient plants can reduce levels of Zn in grains and the ability of plants to express their genetic potentials. This study examines the use of cow manure enriched with Zn heptahydrate on increasing Zn levels of broken skin rice. The experiment was arranged in a randomized single factor group design with seven levels of manure dose treatment, namely: 0; 2.5; 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 tons ha-1, with 3 replications. Spacing was 30 cm x 30 cm with a size of 3 m x 4 m. The parameters observed were plant growth, the weight of 1,000-grain, percentage of empty grain, production, Zn and protein contents of the brown rice. The collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance with a confidence interval of 5%, followed by the Duncan test of 5%. The results showed that the application of cow manure with a dose of 10 tons ha-1 enriched by 5 kg ha-1 Zn heptahydrate could increase the number of productive tillers, weight of 1,000-grains, production, Zn and protein contents of the brown rice as well as suppress the grainy rice grain of Mekongga variety of lowland rice on the intermittent flooding.   Keywords: brownrice, cow manure, irrigation system, Zn heptahydrate


2021 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 104710
Author(s):  
Suwapat Kittibunchakul ◽  
Nantana Yuthaworawit ◽  
Kanyawee Whanmek ◽  
Uthaiwan Suttisansanee ◽  
Chalat Santivarangkna

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