Simple lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to maintaining a physically active way of life, the diet has become one of the bases in managing TD2M. Due to many studies linking the ability of resistant starch (RS) to a substantial role in enhancing the nutritional quality of food and disease prevention, the challenge of incorporating RS into the diet and increasing its intake remains. Therefore, we conducted this review to assess the potential benefits of RS on metabolic biomarkers in pre-diabetes and diabetes adults based on available intervention studies over the last decade. Based on the conducted review, we observed that RS intake correlates directly to minimize possible effects through different mechanisms for better control of pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions. In most studies, significant changes were evident in the postprandial glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Comparative evaluation of RS consumption and control groups also showed differences with inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and E-selectin. Only RS2 and RS3 were extensively investigated and widely reported among the five reported RS types. However, a proper comparison and conclusion are deemed inappropriate considering the variations observed with the study duration, sample size, subjects and their metabolic conditions, intervention doses, and the intervention base products. In conclusion, this result provides interesting insights into the potential use of RS as part of a sustainable diet in diabetes management and should be further explored in terms of the mechanism involved.
Individual glycemic responses following dietary intake result from complex physiological processes, and can be influenced by physical properties of foods, such as increased resistant starch (RS) from starch retrogradation. Predictive equations are needed to provide personalized dietary recommendations to reduce chronic disease development. Therefore, a precision nutrition model predicting the postprandial glucose response (PPGR) in overweight women following the consumption of potatoes was formulated. Thirty overweight women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Participants consumed 250 g of hot (9.2 g RS) or cold (13.7 g RS) potatoes on two separate occasions. Baseline characteristics included demographics, 10-day dietary records, body composition, and the relative abundance (RA) and α-diversity of gut microbiota. Elastic net regression using 5-fold cross-validation predicted PPGR after potato intake. Most participants (70%) had a favorable PPGR to the cold potato. The model explained 32.2% of the variance in PPGR with the equation: 547.65 × (0 [if cold, high-RS potato], ×1, if hot, low-RS potato]) + (BMI [kg/m2] × 40.66)—(insoluble fiber [g] × 49.35) + (Bacteroides [RA] × 8.69)—(Faecalibacterium [RA] × 73.49)—(Parabacteroides [RA] × 42.08) + (α-diversity × 110.87) + 292.52. This model improves the understanding of baseline characteristics that explain interpersonal variation in PPGR following potato intake and offers a tool to optimize dietary recommendations for a commonly consumed food.