AbstractResource utilization of chrome shavings (CS) has attracted a lot of attention from scientists and technologists in leather industry. Especially, the collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS are expected to find potential application values in agricultural field. However, there is no biotoxicity analysis of collagen hydrolysates from CS. Herein, the collagen hydrolysates with different molecular weights were produced from CS by three hydrolysis dechroming methods including alkaline hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline-enzymatic synergistic hydrolysis, and the optimal hydrolysis process of CS was designed and conducted. To evaluate their toxicity, the three collagen hydrolysates were formulated into a nutrient solution for zebrafish development. The obtained results indicated that the hydrolysates with low concentrations (less than 0.6 mg/mL) were safe and could promote the development for zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the three collagen hydrolysates were utilized as organic nitrogen sources and formulated into amino acid water-soluble fertilizers (AAWSF) including alkaline type fertilizer (OH), enzymatic type fertilizer (M) and alkaline-enzymatic type fertilizer (OH–M) for the early soilless seeding cultivation of wheat, soybean and rapeseed. It is worth mentioning that the chromium contents in the prepared AAWSF were less than 10 mg/kg, which is far less than the limit value in the standard (China, 50 mg/kg). The growth and development of seedlings (germination rate, plant height, fresh weight of leaves, soluble sugar content and chlorophyll content) were investigated. The corresponding results showed that the growth of seedlings watered with AAWSF was better compared with the other treatments, and the OH–M fertilizer had the best promoting effect on the seedlings growth and development, followed by the M and OH fertilizers. The safe toxicity assessment of the collagen hydrolysates will expand their application scope, and the use of collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS for seedlings growth also provides an effective and reasonable way to deal with the chromium-containing leather solid waste, which is an effective way to realize its resource utilization.
Camellia oleifera is a widely planted woody oil crop with economic significance because it does not occupy cultivated land. The sugar-derived acetyl-CoA is the basic building block in fatty acid synthesis and oil synthesis in C. oleifera fruit; however, sugar metabolism in this species is uncharacterized. Herein, the changes in sugar content and metabolic enzyme activity and the transcriptomic changes during C. oleifera fruit development were determined in four developmental stages (CR6: young fruit formation; CR7: expansion; CR9: oil transformation; CR10: ripening). CR7 was the key period of sugar metabolism since it had the highest amount of soluble sugar, sucrose, and glucose with a high expression of genes related to sugar transport (four sucrose transporters (SUTs) or and one SWEET-like gene, also known as a sugar, will eventually be exported transporters) and metabolism. The significant positive correlation between their expression and sucrose content suggests that they may be the key genes responsible for sucrose transport and content maintenance. Significantly differentially expressed genes enriched in the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway were observed in the CR6 versus CR10 stages according to KEGG annotation. The 26 enriched candidate genes related to sucrose metabolism provide a molecular basis for further sugar metabolism studies in C. oleifera fruit.
Pot experiments were conducted in 2017, 2019, and 2020 to examine the effects of potassium nutrition on the nutritional components of vegetable soybeans with different K efficiency at immature and mature stages. Two vegetable soybean varieties with higher K efficiency and two varieties with lower K efficiency were studied in the low available K soil under the condition of no K and normal K fertilization. The results indicated that almost all nutritional components in vegetable soybean were affected by K, genotypes, inter-annual differences, and their interactions. In general, no K fertilization increased protein and amino acid concentrations but decreased oil, soluble sugar, sucrose, K, Mg, and Fe concentrations in immature and mature vegetable soybean. The sensitivity of nutritional components to K nutrition differed among varieties. For instance, K high-efficiency varieties generally exhibited higher protein and amino acid concentrations without K application. K high-efficiency vegetable soybeans are low-K tolerance varieties to isoflavones. The results of this study provide insights for high yield and quality vegetable soybean breeding against soil K deficiency.
As the main forms of carbohydrates, starch and sucrose play a vital role in the balance and coordination of various carbohydrates. Lanzhou lily is the most popular edible lily in China, mainly distributed in the central region of Gansu. To clarify the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and bulb development of Lanzhou lily, so as to provide a basis for the promotion of the growth and development in Lanzhou lily and its important economic value, we studied lily bulbs in the squaring stage, flowering stage, half withering stage and withering stage. The plant height, fresh weight of mother and daughter bulbs continued to increase during the whole growth period and fresh weight of stem and leaf began to decrease in the half withering stage. The content of starch, sucrose and total soluble sugar in the lily mother bulb accumulated mostly in the flowering, withering and half withering stages, respectively. Starch, sucrose and total soluble sugar accumulated in the daughter bulb with the highest concentration during the withering stage. In the transcription level, sucrose synthase (SuSy1) and sucrose invertase (INV2) expressed the highest in squaring stage, and the expression was significantly higher in the mother bulb than in the daughter bulb. In flowering stage, the expression levels of soluble starch synthase (SSS1), starch-branching enzyme (SBE) and adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP1) genes were higher in the mother bulb than in the daughter bulb. Altogether, our results indicate that starch and sucrose are important for the bulb growth and development of Lanzhou lily.
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) has been abundantly studied for its application on regulating plant growth of many horticultural and agricultural crops. We presented here the effect of COS on tea plant growth and yield by physiological and transcriptomic checking. The results showed that COS treatment can enhance the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and increase the content of chlorophyll and soluble sugar in tea plants. The field trail results show that COS treatment can increase tea buds’ density by 13.81–23.16%, the weight of 100 buds by 15.94–18.15%, and the yield by 14.22–21.08%. Transcriptome analysis found 5409 COS-responsive differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 3149 up-regulated and 2260 down-regulated genes, and concluded the possible metabolism pathway that responsible for COS promoting tea plant growth. Our results provided fundamental information for better understanding the molecular mechanisms for COS’s acting on tea plant growth and yield promotion and offer academic support for its practical application in tea plant.
A wild relative of rice from the Australian savannah was compared with cultivated rice, revealing thermotolerance in growth and photosynthetic processes and a more robust carbon economy in extreme heat.
Above ~ 32 °C, impaired photosynthesis compromises the productivity of rice. We compared leaf tissues from heat-tolerant wild rice (Oryza australiensis) with temperate-adapted O. sativa after sustained exposure to heat, as well as diurnal heat shock. Leaf elongation and shoot biomass in O. australiensis were unimpaired at 45 °C, and soluble sugar concentrations trebled during 10 h of a 45 °C shock treatment. By contrast, 45 °C slowed growth strongly in O. sativa. Chloroplastic CO2 concentrations eliminated CO2 supply to chloroplasts as the basis of differential heat tolerance. This directed our attention to carboxylation and the abundance of the heat-sensitive chaperone Rubisco activase (Rca) in each species. Surprisingly, O. australiensis leaves at 45 °C had 50% less Rca per unit Rubisco, even though CO2 assimilation was faster than at 30 °C. By contrast, Rca per unit Rubisco doubled in O. sativa at 45 °C while CO2 assimilation was slower, reflecting its inferior Rca thermostability. Plants grown at 45 °C were simultaneously exposed to 700 ppm CO2 to enhance the CO2 supply to Rubisco. Growth at 45 °C responded to CO2 enrichment in O. australiensis but not O. sativa, reflecting more robust carboxylation capacity and thermal tolerance in the wild rice relative.
Bamboo is much more easily attacked by fungus compared with wood, resulting in shorter service life and higher loss in storage and transportation. It has been long accepted that the high content of starch and sugars in bamboo is mainly responsible for its low mould resistance. In this paper, acetic acid, propionic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid were adopted to hydrothermally hydrolyze the starch in bamboo, with the aims to investigate their respective effect on the mould and blue-stain resistance of bamboo, and the optimized citric acid in different concentrations were studied. The starch content, glucose yields, weight loss, and colour changes of solid bamboo caused by the different acidic hydrolysis were also compared. The results indicated that weak acidic hydrolysis treatment was capable of improving mould-resistant of bamboo. The mould resistance increased with the increased concentration of citric acid. Bamboo treated with citric acid in the concentration of 10% could reduce the infected area ranging to 10–17%, the growth rating of which could reach 1 resistance. The content of soluble sugar and starch remained in bamboo decreased significantly from 43 mg/g to 31 mg/g and 46 mg/g to 23 mg/g, respectively, when the citric acid concentration varied from 4% to 10%. Citric acid treatments of 10% also caused a greatest surface colour change and weight loss. The results in this study demonstrated citric acid treatment can effectively reduce the starch grain and soluble sugars content and improve mould resistance of bamboo, which can be attributed to the reduction of starch grain and soluble carbohydrates (such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, etc.) in bamboo.
Drought tolerance is a complex trait controlled by many metabolic pathways and genes and identifying a solution to increase the resilience of plants to drought stress is one of the grand challenges in plant biology. This study provided compelling evidence of increased drought stress tolerance in two sugar beet genotypes when treated with exogenous putrescine (Put) at the seedling stage. Morpho-physiological and biochemical traits and gene expression were assessed in thirty-day-old sugar beet seedlings subjected to drought stress with or without Put (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) application. Sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress exhibited a significant decline in growth and development as evidenced by root and shoot growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression. Drought stress resulted in a sharp increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (89.4 and 118% in SBT-010 and BSRI Sugar beet 2, respectively) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (35.6 and 27.1% in SBT-010 and BSRI Sugar beet 2, respectively). These changes were strongly linked to growth retardation as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA) and heatmap clustering. Importantly, Put-sprayed plants suffered from less oxidative stress as indicated by lower H2O2 and MDA accumulation. They better regulated the physiological processes supporting growth, dry matter accumulation, photosynthetic pigmentation and gas exchange, relative water content; modulated biochemical changes including proline, total soluble carbohydrate, total soluble sugar, and ascorbic acid; and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PCA results strongly suggested that Put conferred drought tolerance mostly by enhancing antioxidant enzymes activities that regulated homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. These findings collectively provide an important illustration of the use of Put in modulating drought tolerance in sugar beet plants.
Pear is a perennial deciduous fruit tree of the Rosaceae Pyrus genus, and is one of the main fruit trees worldwide. The pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea infects pear trees and causes pear ring rot disease. According to our research, exogenous melatonin application enhanced resistance to B. dothidea in pear fruit. Melatonin treatment of pears significantly reduced the diameter of disease spots and enhanced the endogenous melatonin content under B. dothidea inoculation. Compared with H2O treatment, melatonin treatment suppressed the increase in ROS and activated ROS-scavenging enzymes. Treatment with exogenous melatonin maintained AsA-GSH at more reductive status. The expression levels of core autophagic genes and autophagosome formation were elevated by melatonin treatment in pear fruit. The silencing of PbrATG5 in Pyrus pyrifolia conferred sensitivity to inoculation, which was only slightly recovered by melatonin treatment. After inoculation with B. dothidea, exogenous melatonin treatment increased the contents of soluble sugars and organic acids in pear fruits compared with H2O treatment. Our results demonstrated that melatonin enhanced resistance to B. dothidea by increasing the autophagic activity and soluble sugar/organic acid accumulation.