Genetic Relatedness
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Arun K. Dhar ◽  
Roberto Cruz-Flores ◽  
Janet Warg ◽  
Mary L. Killian ◽  
Andrew Orry ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
David E. Ausband

AbstractThe genetic composition of an individual can markedly affect its survival, reproduction, and ultimately fitness. As some wildlife populations become smaller, conserving genetic diversity will be a conservation challenge. Many imperiled species are already supported through population augmentation efforts and we often do not know if or how genetic diversity is maintained in translocated species. As a case study for understanding the maintenance of genetic diversity in augmented populations, I wanted to know if genetic diversity (i.e., observed heterozygosity) remained high in a population of gray wolves in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. > 20 years after reintroduction. Additionally, I wanted to know if a potential mechanism for such diversity was individuals with below average genetic diversity choosing mates with above average diversity. I also asked whether there was a preference for mating with unrelated individuals. Finally, I hypothesized that mated pairs with above average heterozygosity would have increased survival of young. Ultimately, I found that females with below average heterozygosity did not choose mates with above average heterozygosity and wolves chose mates randomly with respect to genetic relatedness. Pup survival was not higher for mated pairs with above average heterozygosity in my models. The dominant variables predicting pup survival were harvest rate during their first year of life and years pairs were mated. Ultimately, genetic diversity was relatively unchanged > 20 years after reintroduction. The mechanism for maintaining such diversity does not appear related to individuals preferentially choosing more genetically diverse mates. Inbreeding avoidance, however, appears to be at least one mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in this population.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Mohamed M. El-Mogy ◽  
Mohamed A. M. Atia ◽  
Faten Dhawi ◽  
Ahmed S. Fouad ◽  
Eslam S. A. Bendary ◽  

This study aims to predict the behavior of different tomato rootstocks under drought stress conditions. SCoT and CDDP analyses were employed to characterize the genetic relatedness among a commercial drought-sensitive tomato hybrid (cv. Bark) and four wild tomato accessions (LA2711, LA1995, LA3845, and LA4285) known for their tolerance to adverse conditions. The Bark plants were grafted onto the aforementioned wild accessions and self-grafted as control, and then the behavior of all graft unions was followed under normal and drought stress conditions. Our results showed a general genotype-dependent better growth and yield of heterografts than autografts under all growth conditions. Furthermore, clustering analysis based on growth, yield quantity and quality traits, and the leaf content of minerals, ABA, GA3, and proline, in addition to the activity of APX, POD, and DHAR reflected the same grouping pattern of the studied rootstocks exhibited by SCoT and CDDP. The identical grouping pattern supports the utilization of SCoT and CDDP as a robust screening tool helpful to predict the physiological and agronomical behavior of grafting on different tomato rootstocks. Furthermore, grafting could be a cost-efficient alternative method to improve drought tolerance in sensitive tomato genotypes.

2022 ◽  
Alice Michel ◽  
Riana Minocher ◽  
Peter Niehoff ◽  
Yuhong Li ◽  
Kevin Nota ◽  

Conservation efforts tend to focus on populations that are genetically differentiated without paying attention to their ecological differentiation. However, isolated populations may be ecologically unique, an important aspect for the design of appropriate conservation measures for endangered species. Here we investigate the interplay between diet and gut microbiome in several geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations of the critically endangered Grauer's gorilla. We find that dietary and gut microbial profiles are population-specific, likely due to geographic isolation and environmental differences. In addition, social groups within each population also differed in diet and, to a lesser extent, in gut microbial composition and diversity. Individuals at low elevation consumed a larger variety of plant taxa than those at high elevation, consistent with the notion that dietary choice is constrained by food availability that changes with elevation. Despite no detectable correlation between the diet and gut microbiome in richness or evenness, dietary and gut microbial composition covaried significantly. As we did not find evidence for an effect of genetic relatedness on the composition of the gut microbiome of Grauer's gorillas, this pattern is likely a result of long-term social, ecological, and geographic factors acting on both diet and microbiome. These results reveal that isolated and genetically distinct populations of Grauer's gorillas are also ecologically distinct, highlighting the need to dedicate separate conservation efforts for each population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Omid Zarei ◽  
Leili Shokoohizadeh ◽  
Hadi Hossainpour ◽  
Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

Background. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is known as a crucial zoonotic food-borne pathogen. A total of 257 raw chicken meat samples were collected from different markets in Hamadan, west of Iran, from January 2016 to May 2017. Materials and Methods. The samples were cultured in selective and differential culture media, and the virulence genes of E. coli isolates were analyzed by PCR assay. The antibiotic resistance patterns of E. coli isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method. The genetic relatedness of the E. coli O157 isolates was analyzed by ERIC-PCR. Results. In total, 93 (36% ± 3.12) of the isolates were identified as E. coli in this study. Based on serological and microbiological tests, 36 (38.7% ± 9.9), 7 (7.5% ± 5.35), and 12 (12.9% ± 6.81) of the E. coli isolates were characterized as STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains, respectively. A high level of resistance to nalidixic acid (91.4% ± 5.7), tetracycline (89.2% ± 6.31), ampicillin (82.8% ± 7.67), and trimotoprime-sulfametoxazole (71% ± 9.22) was detected among the E. coli isolates. The analysis of the ERIC-PCR results showed five different ERIC types among the E. coli O157 isolates. Conclusions. Based on our findings, control and check-up of poultry meats should be considered as a crucial issue for public health.

2021 ◽  
Jun Ishigohoka ◽  
Karen Bascón-Cardozo ◽  
Andrea Bours ◽  
Janina Fuß ◽  
Arang Rhie ◽  

The patterns of genetic relatedness among individuals vary along the genome, representing fluctuation of local ancestry. The factors responsible for this variation have not been well studied in wild animals with ecological and behavioural relevance. Here, we characterise the genomic architecture of genetic relatedness in the Eurasian blackcap, an iconic songbird species in ecology and quantitative genetics of migratory behaviour. We identify 23 genomic regions with deviated local relatedness patterns, using a chromosome-level de novo assembly of the blackcap genome and whole-genome resequencing data of 179 individuals from nine populations with diverse migratory phenotypes. Five genomic regions show local relatedness patterns of polymorphic inversions, three of which are syntenic to polymorphic inversions known in the zebra finch. Phylogenetic analysis reveals these three polymorphic inversions evolved independently in the blackcap and zebra finch indicating convergence of polymorphic inversions. Population genetic analyses in these three inversions in the blackcap suggest balancing selection between two haplotypes in one locus and background selection in the other two loci. One genomic region with deviated local relatedness is under selection against gene flow by population-specific reduction in recombination rate. Other genomic islands including 11 pericentromeric regions consist of evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved recombination cold-spots under background selection. Two of these regions with non-conserved recombination suppression are known to be associated with population-specific migratory phenotypes, where local relatedness patterns support additional effects of population-specific selection. These results highlight how different forms of recombination suppression and selection jointly affect heterogeneous genomic landscape of local ancestries.

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