life stress
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Ye Ji Kim ◽  
Oleksiy M. Levantsevych ◽  
Lisa Elon ◽  
Tené T. Lewis ◽  
Shakira F. Suglia ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ruohan Feng ◽  
Weijie Bao ◽  
Lihua Zhuo ◽  
Yingxue Gao ◽  
Hongchao Yao ◽  

BackgroundFamily environment and life events have long been suggested to be associated with adolescent depression. The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the neural mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD) through memory during stressful events. However, few studies have explored the exact neural mechanisms underlying these associations. Thus, the current study aimed to explore alterations in hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) in adolescent MDD based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and further investigate the relationship between hippocampal FC, environmental factors, and clinical symptom severity.MethodsHippocampal FC was calculated using the seed-based approach with the bilateral hippocampus as the seed for 111 adolescents with and without MDD; comparisons were made between participants with MDD and controls. We applied the Chinese version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and Adolescents Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) to evaluate family environment and life stress. Their relationship with hippocampal FC alterations was also investigated.ResultsWe found that compared to controls, adolescents with MDD showed decreased connectivity between the left hippocampus and bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and right inferior temporal gyrus. In addition, the hippocampal-OFC connectivity was negatively correlated with conflict scores of the FES-CV in the MDD group and mediated the association between family conflict and depressive and anxiety symptoms.ConclusionOur findings are novel in the field and demonstrate how family conflict contributes to MDD symptomatology through hippocampal-OFC connectivity; these findings may provide potential targets for personalized treatment strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-43
Ni Ketut Sri Diniari ◽  
Luh Nyoman Alit Aryani

Delirium is a syndrome characterized by disturbances of consciousness and cognition that occur acutely and fluctuate. Delirium can be caused by general medical conditions, drug users, sensory disturbances, polypharmacy, etc. The etiology of delirium is diverse and non-specific. The preference of pharmacological therapy in delirium is still a debate. Descriptive research with the retrospective cross-sectional method, using secondary data in medical records at the Sanglah Central General Hospital Denpasar for the period January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Patients who were consulted were 166 people, with sex 57 people (34.3%) and 109 women (65.7%). The incidence of delirium in adults (20-59 years old) and elderly (age 60 years) is the highest with 51.2% and 45.1% respectively.  One-third of 45 people (37.2%) had overlapping dementia. Most of the 142 people (85.5%) were experiencing significant life stress. The most common type of delirium was hyperactive delirium (74%). The underlying disease of delirium varies such as the cause of infection (24.1%), intracranial process (19%), malignancy 18.1%, cardiovascular (10.1%), endocrine disorders,(7.8%), kidney disorders (6%), and others in small percentages.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262406
Gary Robinson ◽  
Eunro Lee ◽  
Bernard Leckning ◽  
Sven Silburn ◽  
Tricia Nagel ◽  

Purpose We aimed to test the reliability and validity of two brief measures of resilience adopted for the evaluation of a preventative social-emotional curriculum implemented for Aboriginal middle school students from socially disadvantaged remote communities in Australia’s Northern Territory. The questionnaires chosen were intended to measure psychological resilience and socio-cultural resilience as complementary dimensions of the capacity to cope in circumstances of significant life stress and risk of self-harm. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess construct validity of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), a measure of psychological resilience, and the 12-item Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12), a measure of socio-cultural resilience, with a sample of 520 students. Associations between resilience and psychological distress and emotional and behavioural difficulty were analysed in relation to life stressors to assess criterion validity of the scales. Results CFA provided support for the validity of the respective constructs. There was good fit for both scales. However, assessment of criterion validity of the scales suggested that the adapted measure of socio-cultural resilience (CYRM-12NT) showed higher reliability and a clearer indication of predictive validity than the measure of psychological resilience (CD-RISC-10). Conclusions The CYRM-12NT appears to be a more useful measure of resilience among Aboriginal youth exposed to significant life stress and disadvantage. However, both measures may require further development to enhance their validity and utility among potentially at-risk adolescents in socially, culturally and linguistically diverse remote Aboriginal communities.

2022 ◽  
Caroline Dias ◽  
Carolina Schwertner ◽  
Débora Grando ◽  
Augusto Bacelo Bidinotto ◽  
Juliana Balbinot Hilgert ◽  

Kaley N. Curtis ◽  
Ayumi Nagase ◽  
Soojung Kim ◽  
Susan D. Holloway

AbstractGiven recent sociocultural and economic changes that have created significant pressures on South Korean mothers, we were interested in understanding the factors that might contribute to their sense of competence in taking on the challenges of childrearing. We examined several family conditions theoretically supportive of mothers’ parenting self-efficacy (PSE), specifically whether mothers’ PSE was associated with their marital satisfaction and with their children’s competence (social and academic). We then examined whether PSE was related to life stress, as well as whether life stress moderated the relationship of PSE to the proximal marital and child variables. Participants included 234 South Korean mothers of pre-primary-aged children. Mothers completed a survey reporting on PSE, life stress, and marital satisfaction. Teachers provided ratings of children’s competence. Regression analyses indicated that mothers who experienced lower life stress reported higher PSE after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Neither marital satisfaction nor child competence was associated with PSE. A second set of regressions tested the same set of predictors, in addition to the interactions of life stress with marital satisfaction and of life stress with child competence. Results indicated that for mothers reporting lower life stress, greater marital satisfaction was associated with higher PSE. Unexpectedly, for mothers experiencing higher life stress, lower marital satisfaction was associated with higher PSE. These findings support theoretical formulations linking PSE with marital support and life stress, while suggesting a need to further investigate the association among these factors in a variety of situational contexts, particularly those that are appraised as stressful.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yiwen Chen ◽  
Yuanjia Zheng ◽  
Jinglan Yan ◽  
Chuanan Zhu ◽  
Xuan Zeng ◽  

Early life stress is thought to be a risk factor for emotional disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. Although the excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, whether early life stress affects the E/I balance in the medial prefrontal cortex at various developmental stages is unclear. In this study, rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) that exhibited a well-established early life stress paradigm were used to evaluate the E/I balance in adolescence (postnatal day P43–60) and adulthood (P82–100) by behavior tests, whole-cell recordings, and microdialysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. First, the behavioral tests revealed that MS induced both anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in adolescent rats but only depressive-like behavior in adult rats. Second, MS increased the action potential frequency and E/I balance of synaptic transmission onto L5 pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic (PrL) brain region of adolescent rats while decreasing the action potential frequency and E/I balance in adult rats. Finally, MS increases extracellular glutamate levels and decreased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of pyramidal neurons in the PrL of adolescent rats. In contrast, MS decreased extracellular glutamate levels and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs of pyramidal neurons in the PrL of adult rats. The present results reveal a key role of E/I balance in different MS-induced disorders may related to the altered probability of presynaptic glutamate release at different developmental stages.

2022 ◽  
Holly DeRosa ◽  
Hieu Tran ◽  
Amanda C Kentner

The neonatal environment requires a high level of maternal demand in terms of both breastfeeding and other forms of maternal care. Previous studies have underscored the importance of these maternal factors on offspring development and behavior. However, their contribution as dynamic variables in animal models of early life stress are often overlooked. In the present study, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) on postnatal day (P)10 immediately elevated milk corticosterone concentrations, which recovered by P11. In contrast, both milk triglyceride and percent creamatocrit values demonstrated a prolonged decrease following inflammatory challenge. Sustained inflammatory-induced changes to the nutritional quality of milk were also evidenced by its composition of microbial communities associated with inefficient energy and lipid metabolism. Nutritional deficits in early development have been associated with metabolic dysfunction later in life. Indeed, MIA-associated changes in the nutritional profile of milk were reflected by increased adolescent offspring bodyweights. While MIA did not decrease maternal care quality, there was a significant compensatory increase in maternal licking and grooming the day that followed the inflammatory challenge. However, this did not protect against disrupted neonatal huddling or later-life alterations in sensorimotor gating and mechanical allodynia in MIA offspring. Animal models of early life stress can impact both parents and their offspring. One mechanism that can mediate the effects of such stressors is changes to maternal lactation quality which our data show can confer multifaceted and compounding effects on offspring physiology and behavior.

2022 ◽  
pp. 241-266
Seongwoo Woo ◽  
Dennis L. O'Neal ◽  
Yimer Mohammed Hassen

This chapter explains the parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) to recognize design defects in mechanical products. A life-stress model and a sample size formulation are suggested. A compressor is used to demonstrate this method. Compressors were failing in the field. At the first ALT, the compressor failed due to a fractured suction reed valve. The failure modes were similar to those valves returned from the field. The fatigue of the suction reed valves came from an overlap between the suction reed valve and the valve plate. The problematic design was modified by the trespan dimensions, tumbling process, a ball peening, and brushing process for the valve plate. At the second ALT, the compressor locked due to the intrusion between the crankshaft and thrust washer. The corrective action plan performed the heat treatment to the exterior of the crankshaft made of cast iron. After the design modifications, there were no troubles during the third ALT. The lifetime of compressor was secured to have a B1 life 10 years.

2022 ◽  
pp. 277-302
K.E. Tschetter ◽  
L.B. Callahan ◽  
S.A. Flynn ◽  
S. Rahman ◽  
T.P. Beresford ◽  

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