pharmacological therapy
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Massimo Corsalini ◽  
Saverio Capodiferro ◽  
Fabio dell’Olio ◽  
Giovanni Albanese ◽  
Nicola Quaranta ◽  

Background: Whiplash is a consequence of traumatic injuries, mostly related to road accidents, with variable clinical manifestations, also known as Whiplash Associated Disorders, such as neck, head and temporo-cranio-mandibular pain. Methods: The current study aims to evaluate the onset and evolution of temporomandibular joint pain in people with whiplash in a study group treated with the use of Zimmer Collars (adjustable rigid cervical collars for neck immobilization), as compared to a control group. This prospective study included 31 patients followed by the Dental Prosthesis Department of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro”: 20 patients with whiplash (age range: 20–39 years) treated with Zimmer collars and 11 patients with whiplash (age range: 20–33 years) who were not. Immediately after the whiplash occurred, a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to describe the intensity of pain and to complete the chart of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders. Five out of twenty patients, already treated with a Zimmer collar, wore an occlusal splint as well because of persistent pain reported at the 28-day and 60-day follow-up and were supported by pharmacological therapy with analgesics (paracetamol) and muscle relaxants (thiocolchicoside). Results: During the last follow-up (at six months), three out of five patients displayed a residual VAS score of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, while the remaining two displayed a VAS of 0. In the control group, four out of eleven patients needed to wear an occlusal splint but without muscle relaxants and analgesics pharmacological therapy; these four corresponded to the patients showing a residual painful symptomatology, with VAS reaching value of 2, and also were the oldest patients of the group. Data regarding VAS values and Zimmer collar use, both at the first visit and six months later, were statistically analyzed. Conclusion: Our prospective study highlights how whiplash-associated acute disorders are often self-limiting over a period of few months, thus reducing the possibility of symptom chronicity; the latter seems to be strictly related to lesion severity, pre-existence of a craniomandibular dysfunction and patient age, but appears to be independent from Zimmer collar use, as statistically confirmed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-43
Ni Ketut Sri Diniari ◽  
Luh Nyoman Alit Aryani

Delirium is a syndrome characterized by disturbances of consciousness and cognition that occur acutely and fluctuate. Delirium can be caused by general medical conditions, drug users, sensory disturbances, polypharmacy, etc. The etiology of delirium is diverse and non-specific. The preference of pharmacological therapy in delirium is still a debate. Descriptive research with the retrospective cross-sectional method, using secondary data in medical records at the Sanglah Central General Hospital Denpasar for the period January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Patients who were consulted were 166 people, with sex 57 people (34.3%) and 109 women (65.7%). The incidence of delirium in adults (20-59 years old) and elderly (age 60 years) is the highest with 51.2% and 45.1% respectively.  One-third of 45 people (37.2%) had overlapping dementia. Most of the 142 people (85.5%) were experiencing significant life stress. The most common type of delirium was hyperactive delirium (74%). The underlying disease of delirium varies such as the cause of infection (24.1%), intracranial process (19%), malignancy 18.1%, cardiovascular (10.1%), endocrine disorders,(7.8%), kidney disorders (6%), and others in small percentages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
Risna Devi Yuniasti ◽  
Arif Setyo Upoyo ◽  
Agis Taufik

Background: Pain is a common problem in patients undergoing surgery. The constant postoperative acute pain can affect the physiological and psychological aspects of the patient.Objective: Non-pharmacological therapy is widely used for the treatment of chronic pain. Non-pharmacological therapy needs to be developed in acute postoperative pain due to concerns about the side effects of pharmacological treatment. There is non-pharmacological management that effectively reduces pain intensity, namely hypnotherapy.Methods: The systematic search for this review used the Google Scholar database, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), ProQuest, and PubMed using keywords (Hypnosis OR Hypnotism OR Hypnoanalysis OR Hypnotherapy OR Hypnotherapies OR Mesmerism) AND (Post-surgical Pain OR Post surgical Pain OR Postsurgical Pain OR Post-operative Pain OR Post operative Pain OR Post-operative Pains OR Postoperative Pain OR Acute Postoperative Pain OR Acute Post-operative Pain OR Acute Post operative Pain). The quality of journals was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) instrument. The synthesis method used was narrative synthesis (narrative synthesis).Results: 10 articles were fully reviewed from 2010-2020. The visualization technique with rapid conversational induction has the best effect than other techniques. The most effective way of conveying suggestions is indirect with a permissive approach. The study results showed that hypnotherapy tended to reduce postoperative pain in minor surgical procedures than in major surgeries.Conclusion: Hypnotherapy affects reducing the pain intensity of postoperative patients. The results of this study recommend that hypnotherapy suggestions and pain measures must be tailored to the patient's condition.

Bijendra Singh ◽  
Yuvraj Saras

In recent decades, yoga has been studied for its potential to treat current epidemic diseases such as mental stress, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Individual studies have found that yoga has a therapeutic impact on certain disorders, indicating that it may be used as a nonpharmaceutical strategy or as a supplement to pharmacological therapy for these conditions. However, for therapeutic objectives, these research have only employed yoga asana, pranayama, and/or brief durations of meditation. Yoga's general view is likewise the same, which is incorrect. Yoga actually refers to the merging of individual consciousness with the divine awareness. Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi are the eight rungs or limbs of yoga..

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e30411124771
Elaine Izabel da Silva Cruz ◽  
Aline Helena da Silva Cruz ◽  
Rômulo Alberto Silva Marques ◽  
Rodrigo da Silva Santos ◽  
Angela Adamski da Silva Reis

Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the globe, with more than half of patients reporting pain as a result of the disease. By reducing cancer-related pain, dance has the potential to redefine the life of patients independently of their cure prognosis. This review investigated the benefits of dance as adjuvant, non-pharmacological therapy for cancer treatment. To identify studies related to this topic, we searched the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Scielo, BVS, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. However, we found few published systematic reports investigating the effects of dance in cancer treatment. The numbers are even smaller when we considered the relationship between dance and cancer pain. Although there is a small number of publications on this theme, we reviewed studies that indicate that there is a positive relationship between dance practice and cancer pain management. Moreover, we found that the decline of pain contributed to the better life quality of patients with cancer. We concluded that dance is a physical practice that may improve patients’ quality of life. Regarding the estimations of cancer diagnosis and pain during disease development and therapy, it is fundamental new studies and clinical trials that integrate dance as adjuvant therapy for improving cancer pain and patient’s life quality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Lars Steinert ◽  
Felix Putze ◽  
Dennis Küster ◽  
Tanja Schultz

Physical, social and cognitive activation is an important cornerstone in non-pharmacological therapy for People with Dementia (PwD). To support long-term motivation and well-being, activation contents first need to be perceived positively. Prompting for explicit feedback, however, is intrusive and interrupts the activation flow. Automated analyses of verbal and non-verbal signals could provide an unobtrusive means of recommending suitable contents based on implicit feedback. In this study, we investigate the correlation between engagement responses and self-reported activation ratings. Subsequently, we predict ratings of PwD based on verbal and non-verbal signals in an unconstrained care setting. Applying Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) networks, we can show that our classifier outperforms chance level. We further investigate which features are the most promising indicators for the prediction of activation ratings of PwD.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 212
Claudia D’Alessandro ◽  
Alessia Benedetti ◽  
Antonello Di Paolo ◽  
Domenico Giannese ◽  
Adamasco Cupisti

Drugs and food interact mutually: drugs may affect the nutritional status of the body, acting on senses, appetite, resting energy expenditure, and food intake; conversely, food or one of its components may affect bioavailability and half-life, circulating plasma concentrations of drugs resulting in an increased risk of toxicity and its adverse effects, or therapeutic failure. Therefore, the knowledge of these possible interactions is fundamental for the implementation of a nutritional treatment in the presence of a pharmacological therapy. This is the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD), for which the medication burden could be a problem, and nutritional therapy plays an important role in the patient’s treatment. The aim of this paper was to review the interactions that take place between drugs and foods that can potentially be used in renal patients, and the changes in nutritional status induced by drugs. A proper definition of the amount of food/nutrient intake, an adequate definition of the timing of meal consumption, and a proper adjustment of the drug dosing schedule may avoid these interactions, safeguarding the quality of life of the patients and guaranteeing the effectiveness of drug therapy. Hence, a close collaboration between the nephrologist, the renal dietitian, and the patient is crucial. Dietitians should consider that food may interact with drugs and that drugs may affect nutritional status, in order to provide the patient with proper dietary suggestions, and to allow the maximum effectiveness and safety of drug therapy, while preserving/correcting the nutritional status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xin-li Mao ◽  
Yue Cai ◽  
Ya-hong Chen ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Xiu-xiu Jiang ◽  

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a fascinating topic that has drawn a lot of interest in the last few years, is a major complication caused by a variety of clinical situations, such as liver transplantation, severe trauma, vascular surgery, and hemorrhagic shock. The IRI process involves a series of complex events, including mitochondrial deenergization, metabolic acidosis, adenosine-5'-triphosphate depletion, Kupffer cell activation, calcium overload, oxidative stress, and the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine signal transduction. A number of protective strategies have been reported to ameliorate IRI, including pharmacological therapy, ischemic pre-conditioning, ischemic post-conditioning, and machine reperfusion. However, most of these strategies are only at the stage of animal model research at present, and the potential mechanisms and exact therapeutic targets have yet to be clarified. IRI remains a main cause of postoperative liver dysfunction, often leading to postoperative morbidity or even mortality. Very recently, it was reported that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of a superfamily of nuclear transcription factors activated by agonists, can attenuate IRI in the liver, and FAM3A has been confirmed to mediate the protective effect of PPARγ in hepatic IRI. In addition, non-coding RNAs, like LncRNAs and miRNAs, have also been reported to play a pivotal role in the liver IRI process. In this review, we presented an overview of the latest advances of treatment strategies and proposed potential mechanisms behind liver IRI. We also highlighted the role of several important molecules (PPARγ, FAM3A, and non-coding RNAs) in protecting against hepatic IRI. Only after achieving a comprehensive understanding of potential mechanisms and targets behind IRI can we effectively ameliorate IRI in the liver and achieve better therapeutic effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 156-172
Naryati Naryati ◽  
Nur Nabila Putri Priyono

ABSTRACT: FACTORS AFFECTING BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSION PATIENTS IN RW 03 KELURAHAN JAGAKARSA SOUTH JAKARTA Introduction: Blood pressure control is controlling blood pressure with systolic <140 mmHg and diastolic <90 mmHg. Controlling blood pressure in people with hypertension can be done by losing weight, exercising, adjusting a low-salt diet, improving unhealthy lifestyles, and pharmacological therapy. Blood pressure control is influenced by several factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, family support, and medication adherence.Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence blood pressure control in hypertension sufferers in RW 03 Jagakarsa Village, South Jakarta.Methods: The research design used was descriptive-analytic with a cross sectional approach. The number of samples involved were 42 respondents using the Z formula. The results of the study used Chi-Square statistical test analysis.Results: The results of this study obtained factors related to controlling blood pressure in patients with hypertension, namely attitude (p-value = 0.047), knowledge (p-value = 0.040), family support (p-value = 0.025), and medication. compliance (p-value = 0.040).Conclusion: Suggestions from this study are health services, especially in the community, to find out the factors that influence blood pressure control in hypertension sufferers, one of which can be overcome by developing health education programs for the community, both at the puskesmas and at the posyandu. Thus, blood pressure control can be carried out optimally for a better life. Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure Control, Attitude, Knowledge  INTISARI: FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENGONTROLAN TEKANAN DARAH PADA PENDERITA HIPERTENDI DI RW 03 KELURAHAN JAGAKARSA JAKARTA SELATAN Pendahuluan: Pengontrolan tekanan darah merupakan tekanan darah yang terkontrol dengan sistole <140 mmHg dan diastole <90 mmHg. pengontrolan tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi dapat dilakukan dengan cara penurunan berat badan, olahraga, pengaturan diet rendah garam, memperbaiki gaya hidup yang kurang sehat, dan terapi farmakologis. Pengontrolan tekanan darah dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, seperti sikap, pengetahuan, dukungan keluarga dan kepatuhan pengobatan.Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pengontrolan tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi di RW 03 Kelurahan Jagakarsa Jakarta Selatan.Metode: Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif-analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional. Jumlah sampel yang dilibatkan sebanyak 42 responden dengan menggunakan rumus Z. Hasil penelitian menggunakan analisis uji statistic Chi-Square.Hasil: Hasil dari penelitian ini diperoleh faktor yang berhubungan dengan pengontrolan tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi yaitu sikap (p-value = 0,047), pengetahuan (p-value = 0,040), dukungan keluarga (p-value = 0,025), dan kepatuhan pengobatan (p-value = 0,040).Kesimpulan: Saran dari penelitian ini adalah pelayanan kesehatan khususnya di masyarakat untuk mengetahui bahwa faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pengontrolan tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi dapat diatasi salah satunya dengan mengembangkan program penyuluhan kesehatan bagi masyarakat baik di internal puskesmas maupun dilakukan di posyandu. Sehingga, pengontrolan tekanan darah dapat dilakukan secara optimal untuk menjalankan hidup yang lebih baik. Kata Kunci : Hipertensi, Pengontrolan Tekanan Darah, Sikap, Pengetahuan

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