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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Florence Nalimu ◽  
Joseph Oloro ◽  
Emanuel L. Peter ◽  
Patrick Engeu Ogwang

Abstract Background Several local communities in Central, Western, Eastern, and Northern regions of Uganda have been using the whole leaf extracts of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae) in the treatment of various ailments. Also, several commercial companies sell A. vera as soft drinks in Uganda. However, there are inadequate reports on the toxicities of such preparations. This paper reports the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of whole leaf and green rind of A. vera in Wistar rats. Methods Acute oral toxicity test was carried out in female Wistar rats at doses of 175, 550, 1750, and 5000 mg/kg, p.o. The animals were observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. Similarly, a sub-acute oral toxicity test was performed in both sexes of rats at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days. All the groups of animals were monitored for behavioral, morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes, including mortality and compared with respective controls. Body weights were measured weekly while the animals’ relative organ weights, hematological, biochemical, gross, and microscopic pathology were examined on day 29. Results There was no mortality or apparent behavioral changes at the doses tested in acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests. Thus, the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of green rind and whole leaf aqueous extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. Gross anatomy revealed that the rats’ relative spleen weight in green rind extract at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to the control group. The creatinine levels in female rats that received green rind extract and the chloride ion levels in male rats administered whole leaf extract were significantly elevated. Conversely, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) levels significantly decreased at lower doses of the green rind extract compared to the control. Histopathology of the kidney revealed the renal interstitium’s inflammation at doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg of the whole leaf extract. Conclusion The findings demonstrated that A. vera green rind and whole leaf extracts are non-toxic at relatively high doses when used for a short duration. Prolonged use of the aqueous whole leaf extract might be associated with kidney toxicity.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261723
Jamie-Lee M. Thompson ◽  
Daniel W. D. West ◽  
Thomas M. Doering ◽  
Boris P. Budiono ◽  
Sarah J. Lessard ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a physiological response to disuse, aging, and disease. We compared changes in muscle mass and the transcriptome profile after short-term immobilization in a divergent model of high and low responders to endurance training to identify biological processes associated with the early atrophy response. Female rats selectively bred for high response to endurance training (HRT) and low response to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19) underwent 3 day hindlimb cast immobilization to compare atrophy of plantaris and soleus muscles with line-matched controls (n = 6/group). RNA sequencing was utilized to identify Gene Ontology Biological Processes with differential gene set enrichment. Aerobic training performed prior to the intervention showed HRT improved running distance (+60.6 ± 29.6%), while LRT were unchanged (-0.3 ± 13.3%). Soleus atrophy was greater in LRT vs. HRT (-9.0 ±8.8 vs. 6.2 ±8.2%; P<0.05) and there was a similar trend in plantaris (-16.4 ±5.6% vs. -8.5 ±7.4%; P = 0.064). A total of 140 and 118 biological processes were differentially enriched in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Soleus muscle exhibited divergent LRT and HRT responses in processes including autophagy and immune response. In plantaris, processes associated with protein ubiquitination, as well as the atrogenes (Trim63 and Fbxo32), were more positively enriched in LRT. Overall, LRT demonstrate exacerbated atrophy compared to HRT, associated with differential gene enrichments of biological processes. This indicates that genetic factors that result in divergent adaptations to endurance exercise, may also regulate biological processes associated with short-term muscle unloading.

2022 ◽  
Ana P. Crestani ◽  
Fernanda N. Lotz ◽  
Mirelle A. Casagrande ◽  
Bruno Popik ◽  
Kétlyn T. K. Guerra ◽  

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Molelekwa Arthur Moroole ◽  
Simeon Albert Materechera ◽  
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng ◽  
Rose Hayeshi ◽  
Cor Bester ◽  

The use of medicinal plants for contraception remains a common practice among South African ethnic groups. The present study assessed the phytochemical profile, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity and efficacy of a herbal mixture used for contraception by the Batswana of South Africa. An aqueous extract was prepared from equal quantities (in terms of weight) of Bulbine frutescens (roots), Helichrysum caespititium (leaves) and Teucrium trifidum (leaves) based on a recipe used by traditional health practitioners. The phytochemical profiles of the freeze-dried herbal mixture were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay on Vero cells and in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated using seven Sprague Dawley rats per control and treatment groups. The control group received distilled water while test groups received 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg of the herbal mixture, which was administered orally once a day for three consecutive days. Subsequently, female rats were paired 1:1 with males for 3 days. Their weights were measured weekly and incidence of pregnancy was recorded. The GC-MS chromatogram revealed the presence of 12 identified and 9 unidentified compounds. In terms of safety, the herbal mixture had an IC50 value of 755.2 μg/mL and 2000 mg/kg, which was the highest tested dose that caused no mortality or morbidity in the rats. A contraceptive efficacy of 14.5% was exerted with 50 mg/kg herbal mixture extract while other doses had no effects given that all the rats were pregnant. Based on a chi-square test (p < 0.05), there was no correlation between the tested herbal mixture doses and contraception, nor on the weight of the rats. Overall, the herbal mixture extract was found to be safe but had limited contraceptive efficacy at the tested doses. In future studies, exploring increased dose range, solvent extract types and hormonal analysis will be pertinent.

2022 ◽  
David Keller ◽  
Tamas Lang ◽  
Melinda Cservenak ◽  
Gina Puska ◽  
Janos Barna ◽  

Social touch is an important form of communication, it is still unknown how it is processed. Here, we discovered a functional role for a neuronal pathway projecting from the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus (PIL) to the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in controlling social contact. Neurons in the PIL and the MPOA were activated by physical contact between female rodents and also by chemogenetic stimulation of PIL neurons. Chemogenetic stimulation of PIL neurons tagged by social contact experience increased direct physical interactions between familiar female rats without affecting other forms of social behavior. Furthermore, selective stimulation of the PIL-MPOA pathway, and the local activation of PIL terminals within the MPOA, elevated direct social contact between the animals suggesting the role of pathway-specific activated cell assemblies. Neurons projecting from the PIL to the MPOA contain the neuropeptide parathyroid hormone 2 (PTH2). The expression of the peptide was induced by social housing, the presence of PTH2 receptor was identified in MPOA neurons, and local injection of PTH2 increased the firing rate of identified preoptic area GABAergic neurons via the PTH2 receptor suggesting that PTH2 acts as a neurotransmitter in the PIL-MPOA pathway. We also found a homologous PIL to MPOA neuronal pathway in the human brain. Altogether, we discovered a direct thalamo-preoptic pathway, which bypasses the cerebral cortex and controls social touch. This pathway originates in neurons expressing PTH2, a neuropeptide recently shown in fish to respond to the social environment. These observations provide evidence for common evolutionary-conserved PTH2-containing social-touch specific engram circuits.

Akanksha Awasthi ◽  
Mamta F. Singh ◽  
Saurabh Sharma

Background: Phytoestrogens have recently become a hot topic among scientists. Phytoestrogens’ estrogen-like properties have led to their widespread use in the reproductive system. The aim of this research was to see whether the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum had any estrogenic activity in female wistar rats. Methods: In female wistar rats, the estrogenic effect was studied using a uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and vaginal opening. In ovariectomized immature and mature female wistar rats, a 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) dose of ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum was given. Result: When compared to ovariectomized control rats, the uterine wet weight increased significantly. The estrogen-treated rats had only cornified epithelial cells, indicating the existence of oestrogen, as well as 100% vaginal opening. At 400 mg/kg b.w., the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum demonstrated promising estrogenic activity, as evidenced by uterotropic assays, vaginal opening measurements and histopathological changes. As a result of this research, it’s possible to infer that the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum play an important role in estrogenic activity in female rats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Jeffrey W. Grimm ◽  
Katherine North ◽  
Madeleine Hopkins ◽  
Kyle Jiganti ◽  
Alex McCoy ◽  

Abstract Background There are sex differences in addiction behaviors. To develop a pre-clinical animal model to investigate this, the present study examined sex differences in sucrose taking and seeking using Long-Evans rats. Methods Five experiments were conducted using separate groups of subjects. The first two examined sucrose or saccharin preference in two-bottle home cage choice tests. Experiment three assessed sucrose intake in a binge model with sucrose available in home cage bottles. Experiments four and five utilized operant-based procedures. In experiment four rats responded for sucrose on fixed and progressive ratio (FR, PR) schedules of reinforcement over a range of concentrations of sucrose. A final component of experiment four was measuring seeking in the absence of sucrose challenged with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. Experiment five assessed responding for water on FR and PR schedules of reinforcement. Results When accounting for body weight, female rats consumed more sucrose than water; but there was no sex difference in saccharin preference over a range of saccharin concentrations. When accounting for body weight, females consumed more sucrose than males in the binge model, and only females increased binge intake over 14 days of the study. Females responded at higher rates for sucrose under both FR and PR schedules of reinforcement. Females responded at higher rates in extinction (seeking); SCH23390 reduced sucrose seeking of both females and males. Females responded at higher rates for water on FR and PR schedules than males, although rates of responding were low and decreased over sessions. Conclusions Across bottle-choice, binge intake, and operant procedures, female Long-Evans rats consumed more sucrose and responded at higher rates for sucrose. Although females also responded more for water, the vigor of responding did not explain the consistent sex difference in sucrose taking and seeking. The sex difference in sucrose taking was also not explained by sweet preference, as there was no sex difference in saccharin preference. These data provide a pre-clinical model to further evaluate sex differences in addiction behaviors and manipulations designed to reduce them.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Ross Gillette ◽  
Michelle Dias ◽  
Michael P. Reilly ◽  
Lindsay M. Thompson ◽  
Norma J. Castillo ◽  

All individuals are directly exposed to extant environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and indirectly exposed through transgenerational inheritance from our ancestors. Although direct and ancestral exposures can each lead to deficits in behaviors, their interactions are not known. Here we focused on social behaviors based on evidence of their vulnerability to direct or ancestral exposures, together with their importance in reproduction and survival of a species. Using a novel “two hits, three generations apart” experimental rat model, we investigated interactions of two classes of EDCs across six generations. PCBs (a weakly estrogenic mixture Aroclor 1221, 1 mg/kg), Vinclozolin (antiandrogenic, 1 mg/kg) or vehicle (6% DMSO in sesame oil) were administered to pregnant rat dams (F0) to directly expose the F1 generation, with subsequent breeding through paternal or maternal lines. A second EDC hit was given to F3 dams, thereby exposing the F4 generation, with breeding through the F6 generation. Approximately 1200 male and female rats from F1, F3, F4 and F6 generations were run through tests of sociability and social novelty as indices of social preference. We leveraged machine learning using DeepLabCut to analyze nuanced social behaviors such as nose touching with accuracy similar to a human scorer. Surprisingly, social behaviors were affected in ancestrally exposed but not directly exposed individuals, particularly females from a paternally exposed breeding lineage. Effects varied by EDC: Vinclozolin affected aspects of behavior in the F3 generation while PCBs affected both the F3 and F6 generations. Taken together, our data suggest that specific aspects of behavior are particularly vulnerable to heritable ancestral exposure of EDC contamination, that there are sex differences, and that lineage is a key factor in transgenerational outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 (2) ◽  
pp. 41-45
Abdul-Rahman Zaher ◽  
Falah M AL-Rekabi ◽  
Saad Akram Hatif

The aim of present study was to evaluate the possibility of teratogenicity in rats when exposed to zinc chloride (ZnCl2) pre and post pregnancy. To achieve this goal, a total of 40 mature Albino Wistar female rats were divided equally into four groups as follows: T1, dosed 0.7 mg/day ZnCl2 for two months before mating and till to the day 5th of pregnancy, the females of this group were mated with males dosed 0.7 mg/day ZnCl2 for two weeks before mating; T2, dosed 0.7 mg/day ZnCl2 for two months before mating and till to the day 16th of pregnancy and then were mated with control males (not exposed to any level of ZnCl2); T3, dosed 0.7mg/day ZnCl2 for two months before mating and till the end of pregnancy and were mated with control males; Control, dosed with water free from ZnCl2 along the period of experiment and were mated with control males. At the end of each pregnancy phase, results revealed that alpha fetoprotein serum levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in all treatment groups compared to the control group, and the most prominent increase was observed in the T3 group. All treatment groups showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in gestation, viability, and lactation indices when compared to the control group, with the T3 group showing the most significant decrease. Additionally, on days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 of lactation period, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in mean pup body weights in treated groups compared to the control group, with T3 group having the most prominent body weight decrease. The findings of this study revealed that ZnCl2 at a daily dose of 0.7 mg may cause teratogenic defects in rats at various stages of pregnancy, particularly at the third stage. As high-risk groups, pregnant women and children should use Zn supplementation carefully, whether as a food additive or for self-medication. Simultaneously, evaluating effect of low-dose Zn supplementation over a longer duration is required.

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