helium neon
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2022 ◽  
Vol 64 (3) ◽  
pp. 319
А.И. Подливаев ◽  
И.А. Руднев

Numerically, within the framework of the critical state model, the density of superconducting currents in a second-generation HTSC tape based on GdBa2Cu3O7-x is determined. It is shown that during the restoration of the transverse crack of the superconducting layer by shunting the crack with a piece of defect-free tape, the critical current of the restored area decreases by ~ 8%. It is shown that preliminary irradiation of the crack edges with ions of hydrogen, helium, neon, and oxygen makes it possible to restore the initial value of the critical current. The calculation of the effect of radiation on a superconducting tape was carried out using the SRIM software package

Александра Ивановна Иванова ◽  
Кристина Александровна Мариничева ◽  
Сергей Андреевич Третьяков ◽  
Алексей Михайлович Иванов ◽  
Сергей Вячеславович Молчанов ◽  

Проведены исследования оптического пропускания в диапазоне длин волн 2 - 14 мкм монокристаллов германия, легированных донорными и акцепторными примесями (удельное сопротивление германия 1 - 3 Ом⋅см), в интервале температур от 86 К до 523 К. Рассчитаны значения коэффициентов ослабления α для исследуемых кристаллов; минимальные значения коэффициентов ослабления (0,0015 - 0,0231 см) в интервале температур от 86 К до 323 К характерны для монокристаллов германия, легированных сурьмой, в диапазоне 2 - 11 мкм. Исследования показали, что низкие значения α и коэффициента пропускания на длине волны 3,39 мкм для кристаллов Ge: Sb и Ge: Bi позволяют применять эти низкоомные кристаллы германия для газовых гелий-неоновых лазеров при температурах от 86 К до 323 К. Исследованы температурные изменения геометрии поверхности кристалла на наноразмерном уровне. Показано, что нагрев кристаллического германия приводит к увеличению диффузного отражения излучения от поверхности. Сделан вывод о возможности использования низкоомных кристаллов германия, легированных сурьмой, в качестве элементов инфракрасной оптики в интервале температур 86 - 373 К. In this work, we investigated optical transmission in the wavelength range of 2-14 μm of low-resistance germanium crystals (1 - 3 Ω⋅cm) doped with donor and acceptor impurities in the temperature range from 86 K to 523 K. The values of the attenuation coefficients for investigated crystals are obtained. Minimum attenuation coefficients α of 0,0015 - 00231 cm in the temperature range from 86 K to 323 K are characteristic for germanium single crystals doped with antimony in the range 2,1-11 μm. Studies have shown that the low values of α and the transmittance at a wavelength of 3,39 pm for Ge: Bi and Ge: Sb crystals make it possible to use these low-resistance germanium crystals for gas helium-neon lasers at temperatures from 86 K to 323 K. The temperature changes in the geometry of the crystal surface are investigated at the nanoscale level. It is shown that heating crystalline germanium leads to an increase in the diffuse reflection of radiation from the surface. The possibility of using the low-resistance germanium crystals doped with antimony as elements of infrared optics in the temperature range 86 - 373 K has been demonstrated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 (12) ◽  
E. Borisova ◽  
A. Buzulutskov

AbstractProportional electroluminescence (EL) is the physical effect used in two-phase detectors for dark matter searches, to optically record (in the gas phase) the ionization signal produced by particle scattering in the liquid phase. In our previous work the presence of a new EL mechanism, namely that of neutral bremsstrahlung (NBrS), was demonstrated in two-phase argon detectors both theoretically and experimentally, in addition to the ordinary EL mechanism due to excimer emission. In this work the similar theoretical approach is applied to all noble gases, i.e. overall to helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon, to calculate the EL yields and spectra both for NBrS and excimer EL. The relevance of the results obtained to the development of two-phase dark matter detectors is discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-104
AL- Mashhadani, F.J. K. ◽  
AL-Samarrae, S.A. G

A comparative trial between the effect of 3rd stage Dictyocaulus filaria larval vaccine attenuated by continuous emission of visible Helium – Neon Laser of ImW and wave length of ( 632.8 ) nm of (5) minutes exposure that of gamma attenuated larvae at 0.5 k. gray ( Co as radiation Source ) was designed. Each of the two attenuated larval vaccines was given to a group of ( 5 ) kids each . Double immunization doses at ( 35 ) days interval from each vaccine were given orally. The first dose contained ( 1000 ) larvae and the second one ( 2000 ) for each . A challenge dose of ( 100 ) non- irradiated larvae /kg body weight was given after ( 5 ) week to the vaccinated groups and a control non- vaccinated (5 kids ) 3rd group. All animals were slaughtered after 6 weeks post challenge.  Results showed that both vaccines revealed 80.7% and 78.1% protection respectively for worm burden as compared to control. Laser attenuated vaccine exhibited a statistically significant inhibition in the fecundity of female worms and larvae secretion in faeces in comparison with the gamma irradiated vaccine. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 2064 (1) ◽  
pp. 012010
P A Bokhan ◽  
N A Glubokov ◽  
P P Gugin ◽  
D E Zakrevsky

Abstract The paper presents the results of studies of open discharge breakdown characteristics at nanosecond supply pulse in helium, neon, argon working medium in a wide pressure range. It is shown that the open discharge exists in the range of p He = 20–100 Torr, pNe = 1.5–25 Torr, p Ar = 0.5–3.7 Torr with used experimental conditions. With increasing pressure, the role of separate elementary processes increases which can lead to a change of the discharge form to a presumably avalanche or streamer discharge. However, in this case, due to the photoemissive nature of the open discharge initiation, the similarity law Ep = f(pι) does not coincide with that for a nanosecond avalanche discharge.

Immunotherapy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Siyue Kan ◽  
Hongjin Ren ◽  
Zhiqin Gao ◽  
Erhong Dai ◽  
Yeqiang Liu ◽  

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies result in a unique spectrum of side effects, widely known as immune-related adverse events. Toripalimab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of some cancers. Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of oral lichenoid drug reaction triggered by toripalimab. A 78-year-old man who was diagnosed with systemic metastatic prostate cancer presented with ulcers on the lower lip after the fifth cycle of toripalimab. We diagnosed him with oral lichenoid drug reaction based on clinical manifestation, histopathological findings and the history of anti-PD-1 therapy. The patient responded well to oral corticosteroids combined with helium–neon laser therapy. The anti-PD-1 therapy was not restarted because of stable disease, and the eruptions did not recur.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0-0
Ahmed Abdelqader ◽  
Essam Abdelsalam ◽  
Yasser Attia ◽  
Mohamed Moselhy ◽  
Abdallah Ali ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 131-138
Georgy N. Kokaya ◽  
Anna A. Kokaya ◽  
Vladimir P. Kozyakov ◽  
Aleksander Vladimirovich Zavirsky ◽  
Viktor V. Zatsepin ◽  

It was found that acute exposure to ionizing radiation at doses of 7.5 and 8 Gy leads to the development of bone marrow syndrome of acute radiation sickness in mice. On the 7th day after exposure at doses of 7.5 Gy and 8 Gy, the mortality rate of animals was 66.7%, on the 10th day 83.3 and 86.7%, and by the 14th day it reached 91.7 and 100%, respectively. Prophylactic exposure to electromagnetic radiation from a helium-neon laser modulated with preparations with the tissue of the hypothalamic structures of the brain, spleen and bone marrow of a newborn mouse (P1-4) before X-ray irradiation at doses of 7.5 and 8 Gy contributed to a decrease in the mortality of animals from acute radiation sickness during the first 14 days, which was 28.6 and 50%, respectively. However, with this method of protective action, by the 22nd day after the radiation damage of 7.5 Gy, the mortality rate reached 64.3%, and 8 Gy-90%. On the contrary, with a therapeutic and preventive method of exposure to electromagnetic radiation by a helium-neon laser modulated by drugs with tissue from hypothalamic structures of the brain, spleen and bone marrow of a newborn mouse (R1-4) after a radiation lesion at a dose of 7.5 Gy, the mortality on the 25th day was 23.3%, and 8 Gy 30% and remained at this level for more than 30 days. We believe that the increase in the resistance of mice to ionizing radiation and the different nature of the course of acute radiation sickness with preventive and therapeutic methods of exposure is due to several factors. On the one hand, it is the realization of antihypoxic, antioxidant effects when exposed to electromagnetic radiation modulated by drugs with tissue from hypothalamic structures of the brain, spleen and bone marrow of a newborn mouse. On the other hand, the effect of electromagnetic radiation modulated by the preparation of the bone marrow and spleen of a newborn mouse has a cytoprotective effect on the bone marrow cells of mice with acute radiation sickness. It is also possible that this effect contributes to adequate neuroimmune regulation in the development of acute radiation sickness in mice.

2021 ◽  
Maxime Podeur ◽  
Damian M. Vogt

Abstract A novel turbocompressor test facility has been designed for helium-neon gas mixtures and its specific features are presented. To account for the heat transfer originating from the motor coolant, a surrogate model has been derived. By combining these results with additional numerical ones, a similitude study is conducted quantifying the individual effects and contributions on efficiency of the Reynolds number, tip Mach number and specific heat ratio. Decoupling the effect of the different parameters shows that their respective contribution on efficiency variation is highly correlated to the Reynolds number actual value. The negative contribution of the tip Mach number and the positive effect of Reynolds number can be used to explain the efficiency variation with increasing tip Mach number. Specific heat ratio variation leads to minor changes in polytropic efficiency except at low tip Mach numbers.

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