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Meseret Tadelo ◽  
Tamirat Wato ◽  
Tilahun Negash

Background: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) belongs to the family Solanaceae. In Ethiopia, control of early blight is largely dependent on fungicidal application. There is a research need to identify effective botanical extracts to control Alternaria solani that cause early blight of tomato and for evaluation of plant extracts through different solvents on the target pathogen. Methods: In vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of crude extracts of 16 selected medicinal plants against Alternaria solani. Thus, crude extracts were extracted from medicinal plants with different solvents (methanol, ethanol and petroleum at (25%, 50% and 100%) concentrations. The Alternaria solani was isolated from infected tomato leaves showing early blight symptoms. Evaluation of plant extracts was carried out against Alternaria solani using food poisoned technique on PDA. Result: Results showed that most of the methanolic extract plants were showed significant inhibition of the mycelial growth as compared to ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. A higher rate of mycelial reduction was recorded by ethanol extracts of Allium sativum at all concentrations (100%) followed by methanol extracts of Allium sativum at 25%, 50%, 100% concentration (90.02%, 97.01%, 100% respectively). The effectiveness of extracts against Alternaria solani depends on use at the higher concentrations and various solvents. For crude extracts that have shown higher inhibitory effects against Alternaria solani in vitro conditions, actual chemical compounds should be identified. Furthermore, it is also important to evaluate these plants on other microbes, study to test in vivo and to assess their real potential field condition wherever early blight is an important disease of tomato.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009828
Benjamin J. Hulme ◽  
Kathrin K. Geyer ◽  
Josephine E. Forde-Thomas ◽  
Gilda Padalino ◽  
Dylan W. Phillips ◽  

α-galactosidase (α-GAL) and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) are two glycosyl hydrolases responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating glycan substrates on proteins and lipids. Mutations in the human genes encoding either enzyme lead to neurological and neuromuscular impairments seen in both Fabry- and Schindler/Kanzaki- diseases. Here, we investigate whether the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, also contains functionally important α-GAL and α-NAGAL proteins. As infection, parasite maturation and host interactions are all governed by carefully-regulated glycosylation processes, inhibiting S. mansoni’s α-GAL and α-NAGAL activities could lead to the development of novel chemotherapeutics. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of putative α-GAL/α-NAGAL protein types showed Smp_089290 to be the only S. mansoni protein to contain the functional amino acid residues necessary for α-GAL/α-NAGAL substrate cleavage. Both α-GAL and α-NAGAL enzymatic activities were higher in females compared to males (p<0.05; α-NAGAL > α-GAL), which was consistent with smp_089290’s female biased expression. Spatial localisation of smp_089290 revealed accumulation in parenchymal cells, neuronal cells, and the vitellaria and mature vitellocytes of the adult schistosome. siRNA-mediated knockdown (>90%) of smp_089290 in adult worms significantly inhibited α-NAGAL activity when compared to control worms (siLuc treated males, p<0.01; siLuc treated females, p<0.05). No significant reductions in α-GAL activities were observed in the same extracts. Despite this, decreases in α-NAGAL activities correlated with a significant inhibition in adult worm motility as well as in egg production. Programmed CRISPR/Cas9 editing of smp_089290 in adult worms confirmed the egg reduction phenotype. Based on these results, Smp_089290 was determined to act predominantly as an α-NAGAL (hereafter termed SmNAGAL) in schistosome parasites where it participates in coordinating movement and oviposition processes. Further characterisation of SmNAGAL and other functionally important glycosyl hydrolases may lead to the development of a novel anthelmintic class of compounds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Elizabeth Yi Ern Teng ◽  
Hee Xixian ◽  
Muhamad Fareez Ismail

Dental Caries is a chronic disease affecting half of the global population, causing pain and discomfort due to progressive damage to the teeth. Whilst xylitol has been studied for its effect on dental caries prevention, current practices present few limitations for its successful oral delivery, including short residence time in the mouth and poor patient compliance. Recently, oral thin films (OTFs) emerged as an alternative to delivering xylitol in the oral cavity. This research aims to develop novel OTFs containing xylitol with extended-release properties (as determined by the disintegration time) and to investigate its effect on a cariogenic bacterial strain, Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of xylitol was determined. Employing the microdilution broth method, the antibacterial activity of the oral thin films containing xylitol for oral S. mutans was performed with simulated salivary fluid, incubated at 1, 4, and 10 h. The MIC of xylitol was found at 10%. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans (p > 0.05) between the control, OTFs (10 h), and xylitol-OTF (1 h), with the latter, demonstrated only 16.58% inhibition. Interestingly, when compared to xylitol-OTF (1 h), xylitol-OTF showed significant inhibition (p < 0.05) to S. mutans after four h (+53.24 %) and almost a complete inhibition after ten h (-92.58 %). These results suggest that the OTFs demonstrated a gradual release of xylitol and inhibited oral biofilm formation by decreasing the growth of S. mutans in a time-dependent manner. Most importantly, the study indicated the successful development of a novel xylitol-OTF with potential as an oral health biotherapeutic agent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yanning Xu ◽  
Said M. Afify ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Bingbing Liu ◽  
Ghmkin Hassan ◽  

AbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of continuous proliferation, self-renewal and are proposed to play significant roles in oncogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis and cancer recurrence. We have established a model of CSCs that was originally developed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) by proposing miPSCs to the conditioned medium (CM) of cancer derived cells, which is a mimic of carcinoma microenvironment. Further research found that not only PI3K-Akt but also EGFR signaling pathway was activated during converting miPSCs into CSCs. In this study, we tried to observe both of PI3Kγ inhibitor Eganelisib and EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib antitumor effects on the models of CSCs derived from miPSCs (miPS-CSC) in vitro and in vivo. As the results, targeting these two pathways exhibited significant inhibition of cell proliferation, self-renewal, migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Both Eganelisib and Gefitinib showed antitumor effects in vivo while Eganelisib displayed more significant therapeutic efficacy and less side effects than Gefitinib on all miPS-CSC models. Thus, these data suggest that the inhibitiors of PI3K and EGFR, especially PI3Kγ, might be a promising therapeutic strategy against CSCs defeating cancer in the near future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yuta Shinya ◽  
Masahiko Kawai ◽  
Fusako Niwa ◽  
Yasuhiro Kanakogi ◽  
Masahiro Imafuku ◽  

AbstractThere is growing evidence that preterm children are at an increased risk of poor executive functioning, which underlies behavioural and attention problems. Previous studies have suggested that early cognitive flexibility is a possible predictor of later executive function; however, how it develops in infancy and relates to the later neurobehavioural outcomes is still unclear in the preterm population. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate oculomotor response shifting in 27 preterm and 25 term infants at 12 months and its relationship with general cognitive development and effortful control, which is a temperamental aspect closely associated with executive function, at 18 months. We found that moderate to late preterm and term infants significantly inhibited previously rewarded look responses, while very preterm infants did not show significant inhibition of perseverative looking at 12 months. Moreover, lower inhibition of perseverative looking was significantly associated with lower general cognitive development and attentional shifting at 18 months. These findings suggest that the early atypical patterns of oculomotor response shifting may be a behavioural marker for predicting a higher risk of negative neurobehavioural outcomes, including attention-related problems in preterm children.

2022 ◽  
Fansen Meng ◽  
Hongjin Tao ◽  
Yan Mi ◽  
Tianyu Yang ◽  
Xuanping Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication plays a crucial role in gastric cancer prevention, but the antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori is obstructing this elimination process. In this study, we developed nanoclusters (NCs) from Zn0.3Fe2.7O4 nanoparticles using a poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanocarrier as an innovative antibiotic-independent H. pylori management.Results: The nanocluster showed minimal toxicity and maximal biocompatibility. With a low concentration (50 µg/mL) of NCs under a short time period (~2 min) of near-infrared (808nm) irradiation, we kept the culture medium temperature to 41 °C for 20 minutes with continuous irradiation. The heated NCs exhibited efficient photothermal effects and resulted in an excellent inhibition of H. pylori growth, adhesion ability and cell vacuolization ability in in vitro investigation. Transmission electron microscopy showed a dramatic morphologic change after NCs photothermia on H. pylori, including cell wall and membrane rupture, as well as ribosome damage. Besides, levofloxacin and clarithromycin resistance were improved after photothermal treatment in H. pylori NCTC 11637 and/or clinical strains, however metronidazole resistance was unchanged. We also discovered a significant decrease in the biofilm formation of H. pylori under the NCs-based photothermal application, while efflux pump function was unchanged.Conclusions: Based on this novel NCs-based photothermal approach, we were able to demonstrate in vitro a significant inhibition of both H. pylori growth and molecular toxicity, and its improvement in antibiotic resistance alone with the eradication of H. pylori biofilms previously believed to be resistant to conventional antibiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Shengwei Ji ◽  
Mingming Liu ◽  
Eloiza May Galon ◽  
Mohamed Abdo Rizk ◽  
Bumduuren Tuvshintulga ◽  

Abstract Background Drug resistance and toxic side effects are major challenges in the treatment of babesiosis. As such, new drugs are needed to combat the emergence of drug resistance in Babesia parasites and to develop alternative treatment strategies. A combination of naphthoquine (NQ) and artemisinin is an antimalarial therapy in pharmaceutical markets. The present study repurposed NQ as a drug for the treatment of babesiosis by evaluating the anti-Babesia activity of naphthoquine phosphate (NQP) alone. Methods An in vitro growth inhibition assay of NQP was tested on Babesia gibsoni cultures using a SYBR Green I-based fluorescence assay. In addition, the in vivo growth inhibitory effect of NQP was evaluated using BALB/c mice infected with Babesia rodhaini. The parasitemia level and hematocrit values were monitored to determine the therapeutic efficacy of NQP and the clinical improvements in NQP-treated mice. Results The half maximal inhibitory concentration of NQP against B. gibsoni in vitro was 3.3 ± 0.5 μM. Oral administration of NQP for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight resulted in significant inhibition of B. rodhaini growth in mice as compared with that of the control group. All NQP-treated mice survived, whereas the mice in the control group died between days 6 and 9 post-infection. Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate the anti-Babesia activity of NQP in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that NQP is a promising drug for treating Babesia infections, and drug repurposing may provide new treatment strategies for babesiosis. Graphical Abstract

Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-326050
Fubo Ji ◽  
Jianjuan Zhang ◽  
Niya Liu ◽  
Yuanzhuo Gu ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  

ObjectsThe incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows an obvious male dominance in rodents and humans. We aimed to identify the key autosomal liver-specific sex-related genes and investigate their roles in hepatocarcinogenesis.DesignTwo HCC cohorts (n=551) with available transcriptome and metabolome data were used. Class comparisons of omics data and ingenuity pathway analysis were performed to explore sex-related molecules and their associated functions. Functional assays were employed to investigate roles of the key candidates, including cellular assays, molecular assays and multiple orthotopic HCC mouse models.ResultsA global comparison of multiple omics data revealed 861 sex-related molecules in non-tumour liver tissues between female and male HCC patients, which denoted a significant suppression of cancer-related diseases and functions in female liver than male. A member of cytochrome P450 family, CYP39A1, was one of the top liver-specific candidates with significantly higher levels in female vs male liver. In HCC tumours, CYP39A1 expression was dramatically reduced in over 90% HCC patients. Exogenous CYP39A1 significantly blocked tumour formation in both female and male mice and partially reduced the sex disparity of hepatocarcinogenesis. The HCC suppressor role of CYP39A1 did not rely on its known P450 enzyme activity but its C-terminal region, by which CYP39A1 impeded the transcriptional activation activity of c-Myc, leading to a significant inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis.ConclusionsThe liver-specific CYP39A1 with female-preferential expression was a strong suppressor of HCC development. Strategies to up-regulate CYP39A1 might be promising methods for HCC treatment in both women and men in future.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 145
Latifa Khattabi ◽  
Tarek Boudiar ◽  
Mustapha Mounir Bouhenna ◽  
Aziez Chettoum ◽  
Farid Chebrouk ◽  

An investigation was conducted to study the beneficial effects of Ephedra alata monjauzeana crude extract (EamCE). The chemical profile was determined using RP-HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS analysis, revealing the presence of twenty-one flavonoids and phenolic acids. A series of antioxidant assays was carried out using ten different methods. The EamCE has demonstrated a significant antioxidant potential, with interesting IC50 values not exceeding 40 µg/mL in almost activities. Likewise, a significant inhibition of key enzymes, involved in some health issues, such as Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, hyperpigmentation, dermatological disorders, gastric/urinary bacterial infections, and obesity, was observed for the first time. The IC50 values ranged from 22.46 to 54.93. The anti-inflammatory and non-cytotoxic activities were assessed by heat-induced hemolysis and cell culture methods, respectively; the EamCE has shown a prominent effect in both tests, notably for the anti-inflammatory effect that was superior to the reference compound “diclofenac” (IC50: 71.03 ± 1.38 > 70.23 ± 0.99 (µg/mL)). According to these results, this plant could be used in a large spectrum as a food supplement, as a natural remedy for various physiological disorders and pathologies; and it might serve as a preventive and health care agent.

2022 ◽  
Shanker Kalakotla ◽  
Geetha P ◽  
Ahmadi Banu ◽  
Shamshe Shaik

Abstract Diabetes is among the most common debilitating and non-transferable diseases on the planet. The idea of using nanoparticles as a drug to treat diabetes mellitus seems intriguing. The Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively produced utilizing Moringa olifera (family: Moringaceae) plant extract employing a simple, cheaper, faster, and environmentally friendly green synthesis process. The antidiabetic effect of the produced Ag NPs was also tested in vivo. In the presence of plant extract, silver nitrate was converted to silver ions (Ag). XRD, FTIR, UV, XPS, and HRTEM studies characterize the formed Ag NPs. Ag NPs that have been biosynthesized, crystal nature was confirmed through XRD analysis and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra were used to verify the presence of various functional groups in the biomolecules, forming and stabilizing the nanoparticles. The size of the NPS was in the range of 20-40 nm determined by HRTEM. The induction of diabetes using STZ showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, massive loss in body weight. These changes were reversed following the treatment of diabetic rats for 28 days and showed significant inhibition (p < 0.001) at a dose range of 0.2 mg/kg leaf extract and 0.2 mg/kg Ag NPs compared with the extract-treated group. These obtained results suggested that plant-mediated Ag NPs have shown promising antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity compared to the crude extract.

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