lipid nanoparticles
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Cosmetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Maya Stoyneva-Gärtner ◽  
Blagoy Uzunov ◽  
Georg Gärtner

Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 779
Anastasia Nazarova ◽  
Luidmila Yakimova ◽  
Darya Filimonova ◽  
Ivan Stoikov

Novel monosubstituted pillar[5]arenes containing both amide and carboxyl functional groups were synthesized. Solid lipid nanoparticles based on the synthesized macrocycles were obtained. Formation of spherical particles with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 250 nm was shown for pillar[5]arenes containing N-(amidoalkyl)amide fragments regardless of their concentration. It was established that pillar[5]arene containing N-alkylamide fragments can form spherical particles with two different sizes (88 and 223 nm) depending on its concentration. Mixed solid lipid nanoparticles based on monosubstituted pillar[5]arenes and surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) were obtained for the first time. The surfactant made it possible to level the effect of the macrocycle concentration. It was found that various types of aggregates are formed depending on the macrocycle/surfactant ratio. Changing the macrocycle/surfactant ratio allows to control the charge of the particles surface. This controlled property will lead to the creation of molecular-scale porous materials that selectively interact with various types of substrates, including biopolymers.

2022 ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Mohamad-Gabriel Alameh ◽  
June F. Yang ◽  
Jonathan R. Xu ◽  
Paulo JC Lin ◽  

Treating immunosuppressive tumors represents a major challenge in cancer therapies. Activation of STING signaling has shown remarkable potential to invigorate the immunologically 'cold' tumor microenvironment (TME). However, we and others have shown that STING is silenced in many cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), both of which are associated with an immune-dampened TME. In this study, we applied mRNA lipid nanoparticles (LNP) to deliver a permanently active gain-of-function STINGR284S mutant into PDAC and MCC cells. Expression of STINGR284S induces cytokines and chemokines crucial for promoting intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ T cells and, importantly, also leads to robust cancer cell death while avoiding T cell entry and toxicity. Our studies demonstrated that mRNA-LNP delivery of STINGR284S could be explored as a novel therapeutic tool to reactivate antitumor response in an array of STING-deficient cancers while overcoming the toxicity and limitations of conventional STING agonists.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Bruna Carvalho ◽  
Bruno Ceccato ◽  
Mariano Michelon ◽  
Sang Han ◽  
Lucimara de la Torre

Microfluidics is an emerging technology that can be employed as a powerful tool for designing lipid nano-microsized structures for biological applications. Those lipid structures can be used as carrying vehicles for a wide range of drugs and genetic materials. Microfluidic technology also allows the design of sustainable processes with less financial demand, while it can be scaled up using parallelization to increase production. From this perspective, this article reviews the recent advances in the synthesis of lipid-based nanostructures through microfluidics (liposomes, lipoplexes, lipid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles, and biomimetic nanovesicles). Besides that, this review describes the recent microfluidic approaches to produce lipid micro-sized structures as giant unilamellar vesicles. New strategies are also described for the controlled release of the lipid payloads using microgels and droplet-based microfluidics. To address the importance of microfluidics for lipid-nanoparticle screening, an overview of how microfluidic systems can be used to mimic the cellular environment is also presented. Future trends and perspectives in designing novel nano and micro scales are also discussed herein.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 344
Adriana Trapani ◽  
María Ángeles Esteban ◽  
Francesca Curci ◽  
Daniela Erminia Manno ◽  
Antonio Serra ◽  

The supply of nutrients, such as antioxidant agents, to fish cells still represents a challenge in aquaculture. In this context, we investigated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of a combination of Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 to administer a grape seed extract (GSE) mixture containing several antioxidant compounds. The combination of the two lipids for the SLN formation resulted in colloids exhibiting mean particle sizes in the range 139–283 nm and zeta potential values in the range +25.6–43.4 mV. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction evidenced structural differences between the free GSE and GSE-loaded SLN, leading to the conclusion that GSE alters the structure of the lipid nanocarriers. From a biological viewpoint, cell lines from gilthead seabream and European sea bass were exposed to different concentrations of GSE-SLN for 24 h. In general, at appropriate concentrations, GSE-SLN increased the viability of the fish cells. Furthermore, regarding the gene expression in those cells, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, whereas the expression of hsp70 and other genes related to the cytoskeleton was downregulated. Hence, an SLN formulation containing Gelucire® 50/13/Precirol® ATO5 and GSE may represent a compelling platform for improving the viability and antioxidant properties of fish cells.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Hamdan N. Alajami ◽  
Ehab A. Fouad ◽  
Abdelkader E. Ashour ◽  
Ashok Kumar ◽  
Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin

This work aimed to optimize a celecoxib (CXB)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) colon delivery system for the enhancement of anticancer activity. An ultrasonic melt-emulsification method was employed in this work for the preparation of SLN. The physical attributes were characterized for their particle sizes, charges, morphology, and entrapment efficiency (%EE), in addition to DSC and FTIR. The in vitro drug release profiles were evaluated, and the anticancer activity was examined utilizing an MTT assay in three cancer cell lines: the colon cancer HT29, medulloblastoma Daoy, and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. All of the prepared SLN formulations had nanoscale particle sizes ranging from 238 nm to 757 nm. High zeta-potential values (mv) within −30 s mv were reported. The %EE was in the range 86.76–96.6%. The amorphous nature of the SLN-entrapped CXB was confirmed from SLN DSC thermograms. The in vitro release profile revealed a slow constant rate of release with no burst release, which is unusual for SLN. Both the F9 and F14 demonstrated almost complete CXB release within 24 h, with only 25% completed within the first 5 h. F9 caused a significant percentage of cell death in the three cancer cell lines tested after 24 h of incubation and maintained this effect for 72 h. The prepared CXB-loaded SLN exhibited unique properties such as slow release with no burst and a high %EE. The anticancer activity of one formulation was extremely significant in all tested cancer cell lines at all incubation times, which is very promising.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
Debora Santonocito ◽  
Carmelo Puglia

Abstract: This review describes the use of Lipid-based Nanocarriers (LNCs) for the parenteral delivery of pharmaceutical actives. Firstly, the two generation of LNCs such as ‘‘solid lipid nanoparticles’’ (SLNs) and ‘‘nanostructured lipid carriers’’ (NLCs) are explained in term of preparation, characterization and stability. Although the use of LNCs through parenteral administration has shown many benefits, their use is limited by opsonization, an immune process that causes their short half-life (3-5 min). Therefore, many strategies are discussed to realize “stealth” systems suitable for parenteral administration. Successfully, the requirements and applications of parenteral lipid nanoparticles are reviewed for the delivery of natural compounds, synthetic drugs and genetic materials. In the last period, the latter application has been a remarkable interest due to the numerous benefits of mRNA vaccines to fight the Covid-19 pandemic.

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