angiotensin receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Beilei Wang ◽  
Jinsheng Hua ◽  
Likun Ma

Objectives: We assessed the TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor for the presence of coronary artery calcifications (CACs). Methods: We collected demographic characteristics (age and gender), physical examination (height, weight, BMI, SBP, DBP), comorbidities, medication use, and laboratory variables Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein (TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, UA, TBG, 25-OH-VitD3); and we used coronary angiography to determine the presence of CACs. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the correlation between the TG/HDL-C ratio and CACs and established a predictive model. Results: CAC was present in 121 patients (25.80%). The levels of TG and TG/HDL-C ratio in the CAC group were higher than those in the non-CAC group, while the level of HDL-C in the CAC group was lower than that in the non-CAC group. The univariate analysis showed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with CAC (OR, 0.021; 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.052; P<0.001), and the multivariate analysis indicated that the ratio was an independent risk factor for CAC (OR, 4.088; 95% CI, 2.787-5.996; P<0.001). Using the ratio to establish a prediction model, the area under the ROC curve was 0.814 (95% CI, 0.775-0.853; P<0.001), suggesting that the TG/HDL-C ratio has a high diagnostic efficiency. The diagnostic threshold was 1.037, and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 89.3% and 60.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein TG/HDL-C ratio is an independent risk factor for CAC with good diagnostic efficacy. Abbreviations: TG: Triglycerides, HDL-C: High-Density Lipoprotein, CAC: Coronary Artery Calcifications, BMI: Body Mass Index, SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure, UA: Uric Acid, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, 25-OH-VitD3: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, ACEI: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ARB: Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, CCB: Calcium Channel Blockers, ARNI: Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor, CAG: Coronary Angiography, AUCROC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve. doi: How to cite this:Wang B, Hua J, Ma L. Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Ratio can predict coronary artery calcification. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Boyang Xiang ◽  
Zongliang Yu ◽  
Xiang Zhou

Background: The medical treatments of chronic heart failure have made remarkable progress in recent years. It is crucial to determine the optimal drug combination based on current evidence.Methods: A search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases was conducted for studies on angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (BBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and ivabradine (IVA) between 1987 and 2021. The network meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of drug therapies in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).Results: Forty-eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which overall included 68,074 patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%, were identified and included in the network meta-analysis. The efficacies of 13 intervention classes, including monotherapies or combinations of ACEI, ARB, ARNI, BB, MRA, SGLT2i, IVA, and placebo, on hospitalization for HF, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were compared. Among the 13 included interventions, ARNI+BB+MRA, SGLT2i+ACEI+BB+MRA, and IVA+ACEI+BB+MRA were found to be best in terms of all three outcomes. Compared with placebo, these three drug combinations were associated with significant reductions in the risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for HF.Conclusions: ARNI+BB+MRA, SGLT2i+ACEI+BB+MRA, and IVA+ACEI+BB+MRA were the top three therapies for patients with HFrEF. The increasing use of combinations of conventional and novel drugs contributed to progressive reductions in hospitalization and mortality in patients with HFrEF.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 321
Alok K. Paul ◽  
Md K. Hossain ◽  
Tooba Mahboob ◽  
Veeranoot Nissapatorn ◽  
Polrat Wilairatana ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. 205435812110692
Amit X. Garg ◽  
Meaghan Cuerden ◽  
Hector Aguado ◽  
Mohammed Amir ◽  
Emilie P. Belley-Cote ◽  

Background: Most patients who take antihypertensive medications continue taking them on the morning of surgery and during the perioperative period. However, growing evidence suggests this practice may contribute to perioperative hypotension and a higher risk of complications. This protocol describes an acute kidney injury substudy of the Perioperative Ischemic Evaluation-3 (POISE-3) trial, which is testing the effect of a perioperative hypotension-avoidance strategy versus a hypertension-avoidance strategy in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To conduct a substudy of POISE-3 to determine whether a perioperative hypotension-avoidance strategy reduces the risk of acute kidney injury compared with a hypertension-avoidance strategy. Design: Randomized clinical trial with 1:1 randomization to the intervention (a perioperative hypotension-avoidance strategy) or control (a hypertension-avoidance strategy). Intervention: If the presurgery systolic blood pressure (SBP) is <130 mmHg, all antihypertensive medications are withheld on the morning of surgery. If the SBP is ≥130 mmHg, some medications (but not angiotensin receptor blockers [ACEIs], angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], or renin inhibitors) may be continued in a stepwise manner. During surgery, the patients’ mean arterial pressure (MAP) is maintained at ≥80 mmHg. During the first 48 hours after surgery, some antihypertensive medications (but not ACEIs, ARBs, or renin inhibitors) may be restarted in a stepwise manner if the SBP is ≥130 mmHg. Control: Patients receive their usual antihypertensive medications before and after surgery. The patients’ MAP is maintained at ≥60 mmHg from anesthetic induction until the end of surgery. Setting: Recruitment from 108 centers in 22 countries from 2018 to 2021. Patients: Patients (~6800) aged ≥45 years having noncardiac surgery who have or are at risk of atherosclerotic disease and who routinely take antihypertensive medications. Measurements: The primary outcome of the substudy is postoperative acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of either ≥26.5 μmol/L (≥0.3 mg/dL) within 48 hours of randomization or ≥50% within 7 days of randomization. Methods: The primary analysis (intention-to-treat) will examine the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of acute kidney injury in the intervention versus control group. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury and examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease, defined as a prerandomization estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Substudy results will be analyzed in 2022. Limitations: It is not possible to mask patients or providers to the intervention; however, objective measures will be used to assess acute kidney injury. Conclusions: This substudy will provide generalizable estimates of the effect of a perioperative hypotension-avoidance strategy on the risk of acute kidney injury.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 030006052110679
Qianlan Xi ◽  
Zijun Chen ◽  
Tingming Li ◽  
Liya Wang

Advances in cancer therapy have resulted in more cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD), which is the main cause of death in older female survivors of breast cancer. Traditionally, guideline-recommended medications for heart failure, such as beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs), are commonly used to prevent or attenuate CTRCD. However, sometimes their effectiveness is not satisfactory. Recently, the drug combination of sacubitril plus valsartan has been proven to be more beneficial for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in the long term compared with an ACEI/ARB alone. However, there is a lack of evidence of the efficacy and safety of this drug combination in CTRCD. We report a case of worsening CTRCD, despite treatment with traditional medications, in which the patient improved after changing perindopril to sacubitril/valsartan. The patient’s heart function greatly improved after changing this ACEI to sacubitril/valsartan. Changing an ACEI/ARB to sacubitril/valsartan in patients with worsening chemotherapy-induced heart failure is appropriate. Further studies with a high level of evidence are required to assess the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan for CTRCD.

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