gene selection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 46-49
Junbo Luo ◽  
Xuejun Li

ABSTRACT Introduction: Using gene therapy to transfer specific genes to implant therapeutic proteins into damaged tissues is a more promising way to treat sports injuries. The combination of tissue engineering and gene therapy will potentially promote the regeneration and repair of various damaged tissues. Objective: This article explores the adaptive relationship between gene selection therapy and athletes in sports. Methods: We selected students of related majors in sports schools to conduct specific genetic testing and measure the muscle area, fatigue level, muscle damage, and other related indicators before and after exercise. Results: After a series of physical fitness assessments, an increase in the gene sequence, as well as changes in the biochemical indices, were confirmed Conclusions: The muscle gain of the test subject during training is better than other genotypes. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
David Navarro-Payá ◽  
Antonio Santiago ◽  
Luis Orduña ◽  
Chen Zhang ◽  
Alessandra Amato ◽  

Effective crop improvement, whether through selective breeding or biotech strategies, is largely dependent on the cumulative knowledge of a species’ pangenome and its containing genes. Acquiring this knowledge is specially challenging in grapevine, one of the oldest fruit crops grown worldwide, which is known to have more than 30,000 genes. Well-established research communities studying model organisms have created and maintained, through public and private funds, a diverse range of online tools and databases serving as repositories of genomes and gene function data. The lack of such resources for the non-model, but economically important, Vitis vinifera species has driven the need for a standardised collection of genes within the grapevine community. In an effort led by the Integrape COST Action CA17111, we have recently developed the first grape gene reference catalogue, where genes are ascribed to functional data, including their accession identifiers from different genome-annotation versions ( We present and discuss this gene repository together with a validation-level scheme based on varied supporting evidence found in current literature. The catalogue structure and online submission form provided permits community curation. Finally, we present the Gene Cards tool, developed within the Vitis Visualization (VitViz) platform, to visualize the data collected in the catalogue and link gene function with tissue-specific expression derived from public transcriptomic data. This perspective article aims to present these resources to the community as well as highlight their potential use, in particular for plant-breeding applications.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Maoxuan Miao ◽  
Jinran Wu ◽  
Fengjing Cai ◽  
You-Gan Wang

Selecting the minimal best subset out of a huge number of factors for influencing the response is a fundamental and very challenging NP-hard problem because the presence of many redundant genes results in over-fitting easily while missing an important gene can more detrimental impact on predictions, and computation is prohibitive for exhaust search. We propose a modified memetic algorithm (MA) based on an improved splicing method to overcome the problems in the traditional genetic algorithm exploitation capability and dimension reduction in the predictor variables. The new algorithm accelerates the search in identifying the minimal best subset of genes by incorporating it into the new local search operator and hence improving the splicing method. The improvement is also due to another two novel aspects: (a) updating subsets of genes iteratively until the no more reduction in the loss function by splicing and increasing the probability of selecting the true subsets of genes; and (b) introducing add and del operators based on backward sacrifice into the splicing method to limit the size of gene subsets. Additionally, according to the experimental results, our proposed optimizer can obtain a better minimal subset of genes with a few iterations, compared with all considered algorithms. Moreover, the mutation operator is replaced by it to enhance exploitation capability and initial individuals are improved by it to enhance efficiency of search. A dataset of the body weight of Hu sheep was used to evaluate the superiority of the modified MA against the genetic algorithm. According to our experimental results, our proposed optimizer can obtain a better minimal subset of genes with a few iterations, compared with all considered algorithms including the most advanced adaptive best-subset selection algorithm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haiyan Fu ◽  
Tubiao Huang ◽  
Cheng Yin ◽  
Zhenhua Xu ◽  
Chao Li ◽  

Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most serious root maggot pest which causes substantial damage to the Chinese chive. Organophosphate (OP) and neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used chemical pesticides and play important roles in controlling B. odoriphaga. However, a strong selection pressure following repeated pesticide applications has led to the development of resistant populations of this insect. To understand the insecticide resistance mechanism in B. odoriphaga, gene expression analysis might be required. Appropriate reference gene selection is a critical prerequisite for gene expression studies, as the expression stability of reference genes can be affected by experimental conditions, resulting in biased or erroneous results. The present study shows the expression profile of nine commonly used reference genes [elongation factor 1α (EF-1α), actin2 (ACT), elongation factor 2α (EF-2α), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC), and α-tubulin (TUB)] was systematically analyzed under insecticide stress. Moreover, we also evaluated their expression stability in other experimental conditions, including developmental stages, sexes, and tissues. Five programs (NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, RefFinder, and ΔCt) were used to validate the suitability of candidate reference genes. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of reference genes were RPL10 and ACT across phoxim; ACT and TUB across chlorpyrifos and chlorfluazuron; EF1α and TUB across imidacloprid; EF1α and EF2α across developmental stages; RPL10 and TUB across larvae; EF1α and ACT across tissues, and ACT and G6PDH across sex. These results will facilitate the standardization of RT-qPCR and contribute to further research on B. odoriphaga gene function under insecticides stress.

2022 ◽  
Qin Yang ◽  
Park Tae-Sung ◽  
Lee Bumkyu ◽  
Lim Myung-Ho

Abstract In the present study, we attempted to knock out the bar gene selection marker in the fixed Bt- and herbicide-resistant transgenic line BT-T07 (T8 generation) to generate a marker-free Bt-resistant rice line. A binary vector containing a CRISPR/Cas9 system targeting the 108–130 bp region of bar was transformed into rice embryonic calli, and plantlets were regenerated under non-selective conditions. Three T0 plants were observed to have non-target point mutations and deletions in the targeted gene and were putatively heterozygous and chimeras. One T0 plant, 130-4, was confirmed to have a 76-nt deletion, from 140 bp to 225 bp, and it showed the segregation of bar in its T1 progenies, with 16 bar-knockout lines and seven normal bar-expressing lines. However, the CRISPR/Cas9 editing vector sequences were not detected in any of the T1 plants. In addition, unusual removal of pre-existing T-DNA was observed in all bar-knockout T1 plants. Illumina sequencing of a bar-knockout line, 130-4-36, revealed a small fraction of read residues of pre-existing T-DNA from the bar sequence to the right border at the original junction site. We speculate that this rare phenomenon might be directed by the homology between pre-existing T-DNA and CRISPR/Cas9 editing vector sequences during meiotic recombination. We report imprecise modifications and unpredictable outcomes of gene-editing techniques, providing valuable perspectives on gene-editing applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 738
Xiu-Mei Dong ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Shi-Bao Zhang

The development and tissue-dependent color formation of the horticultural plant results in various color pattern flowers. Anthocyanins and carotenoids contribute to the red and yellow colors, respectively. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is used to analyze the expression profiles of anthocyanin and carotenoids biosynthesis genes in Cymbidium lowianum (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Appropriate reference gene selection and validation are required before normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR analysis. Thus, we firstly selected 12 candidate reference genes from transcriptome data, and used geNorm and Normfinder to evaluate their expression stability in lip (divided into abaxial and adaxial), petal, and sepal of the bud and flower of C. lowianum. Our results show that the two most stable reference genes in different tissues of C. lowianum bud and flower are EF1δ and 60S, the most unstable reference gene is 26S. The expression profiles of the CHS and BCH genes were similar to FPKM value profiles after normalization to the two most stable reference genes, EF1δ and 60S, with the upregulated CHS and BCH expression in flower stage, indicating that the ABP and CBP were activated across the stages of flower development. However, when the most unstable reference gene, 26S, was used to normalize the qRT-PCR data, the expression profiles of CHS and BCH differed from FPKM value profiles, indicating the necessity of selecting stable reference genes. Moreover, CHS and BCH expression was highest in the abaxial lip and adaxial lip, respectively, indicating that the ABP and CBP were activated in abaxial and adaxial lip, respectively, resulting in a presence of red or yellow segments in abaxial and adaxial lip. This study is the first to provide reference genes in C. lowianum, and also provide useful information for studies that aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower color formation in C. lowianum.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Daqu Liang ◽  
Haoyun Wang ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yuanxiang Zhao ◽  
Feng Wu

Fagus longipetiolata Seemen is a deciduous tree of the Fagus genus in Fagaceae, which is endemic to China. In this study, we successfully sequenced the cp genome of F. longipetiolata, compared the cp genomes of the Fagus genus, and reconstructed the phylogeny of Fagaceae. The results showed that the cp genome of F. longipetiolata was 158,350 bp, including a pair of inverted repeat (IRA and IRB) regions with a length of 25,894 bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 87,671 bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,891 bp. The genome encoded 131 unique genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 8 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and 5 pseudogenes. In addition, 33 codons and 258 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The cp genomes of Fagus were relatively conserved, especially the IR regions, which showed the best conservation, and no inversions or rearrangements were found. The five regions with the largest variations were the rps12, rpl32, ccsA, trnW-CCA, and rps3 genes, which spread over in LSC and SSC. The comparison of gene selection pressure indicated that purifying selection was the main selective pattern maintaining important biological functions in Fagus cp genomes. However, the ndhD, rpoA, and ndhF genes of F. longipetiolata were affected by positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that F. longipetiolata and F. engleriana formed a close relationship, which partially overlapped in their distribution in China. Our analysis of the cp genome of F. longipetiolata would provide important genetic information for further research into the classification, phylogeny and evolution of Fagus.

Fiana Ní Ghrálaigh ◽  
Ellen McCarthy ◽  
Daniel N. Murphy ◽  
Louise Gallagher ◽  
Lorna M. Lopez

AbstractAutism is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition, highly heterogenous in both genotype and phenotype. This communication adds to existing discussion of the heterogeneity of clinical sequencing tests, “gene panels”, marketed for application in autism. We evaluate the clinical utility of available gene panels based on existing genetic evidence. We determine that diagnostic yields of these gene panels range from 0.22% to 10.02% and gene selection for the panels is variable in relevance, here measured as percentage overlap with SFARI Gene and ranging from 15.15% to 100%. We conclude that gene panels marketed for use in autism are currently of limited clinical utility, and that sequencing with greater coverage may be more appropriate.

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