small peptides
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chiara Schiattarella ◽  
Carlo Diaferia ◽  
Enrico Gallo ◽  
Bartolomeo Della Ventura ◽  
Giancarlo Morelli ◽  

AbstractThe self-assembling of small peptides not only leads to the formation of intriguing nanoarchitectures, but also generates materials with unexpected functional properties. Oligopeptides can form amyloid-like cross-β assemblies that are able to emit intrinsic photoluminescence (PL), over the whole near-UV/visible range, whose origin is still largely debated. As proton transfer between the peptide chain termini within the assembly is one of the invoked interpretations of this phenomenon, we here evaluated the solid state PL properties of a series of self-assembled hexaphenylalanine peptides characterized by a different terminal charge state. Overall, our data indicate that the charge state of these peptides has a marginal role in the PL emission as all systems exhibit very similar multicolour PL associated with a violation of the Kasha’s rule. On the other hand, charged/uncharged ends occasionally produce differences in the quantum yields. The generality of these observations has been proven by extending these analyses to the Aβ16–21 peptide. Collectively, the present findings provide useful information for deciphering the code that links the spectroscopic properties of these assemblies to their structural/electronic features.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 405
Charline Herrscher ◽  
Sébastien Eymieux ◽  
Christophe Gaborit ◽  
Hélène Blasco ◽  
Julien Marlet ◽  

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, many studies have investigated the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 during infection. Studies with native viral proteins constitute a first-line approach to assessing the overall immune response, but small peptides are an accurate and valuable tool for the fine characterization of B-cell epitopes, despite the restriction of this approach to the determination of linear epitopes. In this study, we used ELISA and peptides covering a selection of structural and non-structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify key epitopes eliciting a strong immune response that could serve as a biological signature of disease characteristics, such as severity, in particular. We used 213 plasma samples from a cohort of patients well-characterized clinically and biologically and followed for COVID-19 infection. We found that patients developing severe disease had higher titers of antibodies mapping to multiple specific epitopes than patients with mild to moderate disease. These data are potentially important as they could be used for immunological profiling to improve our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the humoral response in relation to patient outcome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Concetta Cafiero ◽  
Alessandra Micera ◽  
Agnese Re ◽  
Loredana Postiglione ◽  
Andrea Cacciamani ◽  

: SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis has been recently extended to human central nervous system (CNS), in addition to nasopharyngeal truck, eye, lung and gut. The recent literature highlights that some SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein regions homologous to neurotoxin-like peptides might bind to human nicotinic Acetyl-Choline Receptors (nAChRs). Spike-nAChR interaction can probably cause dysregulation of CNS and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways and uncontrolled immune-response, both associated to a severe COVID-19 pathophysiology. Herein, we hypothesize that inside the Open Reading Frame (ORF) region of spike glycoprotein, the RNA polymerase can translate small neurotoxic peptides by means of a “jumping mechanism” already demonstrated in other coronaviruses. These small peptides can bind the snAChRs instead of Spike glycoproteins. A striking homology occurred between these small peptides observed by sequence retrieval and proteins alignment. Acting as nAChRs antagonists, these small peptides (conotoxins) could be the explanation for the extrapulmonary clinical manifestations (neurological, hemorrhagic and thrombotic expressions, the prolonged apnea, the cardiocirculatory collapse, the heart arrhythmias, the ventricular tachycardia, the body temperature alteration, the electrolyte K+ imbalance and finally the significant reduction of butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) plasma levels, as observed in COVID-19 patients. Several factors might induce the expression of these small peptides, including microbiota. The main hypothesis regarding the presence of these small peptides opens a new scenario on the etiology of COVID-19 clinical symptoms observed so far, including the neurological manifestations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Veronica Carnicelli ◽  
Anna Rita Lizzi ◽  
Alessia Ponzi ◽  
Carla Luzi ◽  
Lisa Grotta ◽  

Abstract The work reported in this paper addresses the iodine nutritional deficiency that still affects a large number of people. For this purpose, we analyzed the possibility to use, as iodine vehicle, a hard typical ewe cheese, called Canestrato d'Abruzzo, derived from milk of ewes fed with an iodine-fortified diet. Both in the milk and the cheese of these animals, the iodine level was higher than that measured in sheep with a normal diet. An increase in the lactoferrin and iron content was evident in the whey derived from milk of the iodine group. Furthermore, in derived cheese, the caseins seemed more efficiently transformed in small peptides making the product more digestible and, for this reason, particularly suitable for feeding the elderly. In conclusion, the dairy products obtained from ewes fed with iodine diet contain more bioactive compounds so that they represent a useful food to prevent iodine and iron deficiency in lamb and humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Umer Saleem Bhat ◽  
Navneet Shahi ◽  
Siju Surendran ◽  
Kavita Babu

One of the reasons that most multicellular animals survive and thrive is because of the adaptable and plastic nature of their nervous systems. For an organism to survive, it is essential for the animal to respond and adapt to environmental changes. This is achieved by sensing external cues and translating them into behaviors through changes in synaptic activity. The nervous system plays a crucial role in constantly evaluating environmental cues and allowing for behavioral plasticity in the organism. Multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides have been implicated as key players for integrating sensory information to produce the desired output. Because of its simple nervous system and well-established neuronal connectome, C. elegans acts as an excellent model to understand the mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Here, we critically review how neuropeptides modulate a wide range of behaviors by allowing for changes in neuronal and synaptic signaling. This review will have a specific focus on feeding, mating, sleep, addiction, learning and locomotory behaviors in C. elegans. With a view to understand evolutionary relationships, we explore the functions and associated pathophysiology of C. elegans neuropeptides that are conserved across different phyla. Further, we discuss the mechanisms of neuropeptidergic signaling and how these signals are regulated in different behaviors. Finally, we attempt to provide insight into developing potential therapeutics for neuropeptide-related disorders.

Thiruchelvi. R ◽  
Priyadharshini. S ◽  
Rajakumari K.

Moringa oleifera commonly called as Drumstick tree is a multipurpose tree and it is widely present in the places like India, Asia, Africa, etc. Its leaves are emetic and their juices are used for medicinal purposes. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome with insufficient insulin secretion and abnormal glucose tolerance. It is a group of diseases which results in too much sugar in the blood. Leaves from Moringa oleifera were collected, analysed for their anti- diabetic activity. First the proteins are extracted using protein extraction methods, estimated using Lowry’s method, and then anti- diabetic activity was checked using Glucose uptake assay by yeast cells, where the plant extract (small proteins) was able to uptake glucose. SDS-PAGE was carried out to check the protein’s size and molecular weight. The characterization of Moringa oleifera conducted in this study shows that the small peptides from the leaves of this plant can contribute significantly in the daily recommended intake of it, since it serves as a rich source of all minerals, vitamins etc. This study has confirmed that the small peptides from the leaves of M.oleifera can fight against diabetics and the result indicated that Murungai (Moringa) leaves are suitable source of green leaf to reduce the diabetic complications in diabetic patients.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 829
Vania Sáez ◽  
Doreen Schober ◽  
Álvaro González ◽  
Panagiotis Arapitsas

Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in Chile, mainly grown between the 30° S and 36° S, account for more than 30% of Chilean wine production, and yield wines with different characteristics which influence their quality. The aim of this study was to apply a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS)-based metabolomic protocol to investigate the quality differentiation in a sample set of monovarietal wines from eight valleys covering 679 km of the north-south extension. All samples were produced using a standardized red winemaking process and classified according to a company categorization in two major groups: premium and standard, and each group in two subcategories. The results pointed out that N-containing metabolites (mainly small peptides) are promising biomarkers for quality differentiation. Moreover, the premium wines were characterized by higher amounts of anthocyanins and other glycosylated and acetylated flavonoids, as well as phenolic acids; standard quality wines, on the other hand, presented stilbenoids and sulfonated catabolites of tryptophan and flavanols.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  
Weili Long ◽  
Liqiong Yang ◽  
Yueshui Zhao ◽  
Xu Wu ◽  

Gastrointestinal cancer is by far the most common malignancy and the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of cancer cells and regulate tumor progression by affecting chromatin modifications, gene transcription, translation, and sponge to miRNAs. In particular, lncRNA has recently been found to possess open reading frame (ORF), which can encode functional small peptides or proteins. These peptides interact with its targets to regulate transcription or the signal axis, thus promoting or inhibiting the occurrence and development of tumors. In this review, we summarize the involvement of lncRNAs and the function of lncRNAs encoded small peptides in gastrointestinal cancer.

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