host defense
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Aquaculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 549 ◽  
pp. 737803
Haiying Liang ◽  
Rongcheng Liang ◽  
Huijuan Wang ◽  
Xiaolin Zhang ◽  
Xiaojun Yan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 948
Urszula Wójcik-Bojek ◽  
Barbara Różalska ◽  
Beata Sadowska

The main purpose of this review is to present justification for the urgent need to implement specific prophylaxis of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections. We emphasize the difficulties in achieving this goal due to numerous S. aureus virulence factors important for the process of infection and the remarkable ability of these bacteria to avoid host defense mechanisms. We precede these considerations with a brief overview of the global necessitiy to intensify the use of vaccines against other pathogens as well, particularly in light of an impasse in antibiotic therapy. Finally, we point out global trends in research into modern technologies used in the field of molecular microbiology to develop new vaccines. We focus on the vaccines designed to fight the infections caused by S. aureus, which are often resistant to the majority of available therapeutic options.

Mobile DNA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Kenji Ichiyanagi ◽  
Kuniaki Saito

AbstractThe fifth Japanese meeting on host–transposon interactions, titled “Biological Function and Evolution through Interactions between Hosts and Transposable Elements (TEs),” was held online on August 26–27, 2021. The meeting was supported by National Institute of Genetics and aimed to bring together researchers studying the diverse roles of TEs in genome function and evolution, as well as host defense systems against TE mobility by chromatin and RNA modifications and protein-protein interactions. Here, we present the highlights of the talks.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Hong Guo-Parke ◽  
Dermot Linden ◽  
Sinéad Weldon ◽  
Joseph C. Kidney ◽  
Clifford C. Taggart

COPD is a chronic lung disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible airflow obstruction, and persistent pulmonary inflammation. It has become a global epidemic affecting 10% of the population, and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Respiratory viruses are a primary cause of COPD exacerbations, often leading to secondary bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. COPD patients are more susceptible to viral infections and associated severe disease, leading to accelerated lung function deterioration, hospitalization, and an increased risk of mortality. The airway epithelium plays an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, and orchestrates the innate and adaptive responses of the lung against inhaled and pathogen insults. A healthy airway epithelium acts as the first line of host defense by maintaining barrier integrity and the mucociliary escalator, secreting an array of inflammatory mediators, and initiating an antiviral state through the interferon (IFN) response. The airway epithelium is a major site of viral infection, and the interaction between respiratory viruses and airway epithelial cells activates host defense mechanisms, resulting in rapid virus clearance. As such, the production of IFNs and the activation of IFN signaling cascades directly contributes to host defense against viral infections and subsequent innate and adaptive immunity. However, the COPD airway epithelium exhibits an altered antiviral response, leading to enhanced susceptibility to severe disease and impaired IFN signaling. Despite decades of research, there is no effective antiviral therapy for COPD patients. Herein, we review current insights into understanding the mechanisms of viral evasion and host IFN antiviral defense signaling impairment in COPD airway epithelium. Understanding how antiviral mechanisms operate in COPD exacerbations will facilitate the discovery of potential therapeutic interventions to reduce COPD hospitalization and disease severity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2115230119
Mariko Kamioka ◽  
Yoshiyuki Goto ◽  
Kiminori Nakamura ◽  
Yuki Yokoi ◽  
Rina Sugimoto ◽  

Paneth cells are intestinal epithelial cells that release antimicrobial peptides, such as α-defensin as part of host defense. Together with mesenchymal cells, Paneth cells provide niche factors for epithelial stem cell homeostasis. Here, we report two subtypes of murine Paneth cells, differentiated by their production and utilization of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), which regulates α(1,2)fucosylation to create cohabitation niches for commensal bacteria and prevent invasion of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria. The majority of Fut2− Paneth cells were localized in the duodenum, whereas the majority of Fut2+ Paneth cells were in the ileum. Fut2+ Paneth cells showed higher granularity and structural complexity than did Fut2− Paneth cells, suggesting that Fut2+ Paneth cells are involved in host defense. Signaling by the commensal bacteria, together with interleukin 22 (IL-22), induced the development of Fut2+ Paneth cells. IL-22 was found to affect the α-defensin secretion system via modulation of Fut2 expression, and IL-17a was found to increase the production of α-defensin in the intestinal tract. Thus, these intestinal cytokines regulate the development and function of Fut2+ Paneth cells as part of gut defense.

2022 ◽  
pp. 37-74
Weilan Wang ◽  
Tingting Ju ◽  
Michael G. Gänzle ◽  

Vertebrate animals are holobionts and their physiology and metabolism are influenced by their commensal microbiota. Gut microbiota and their metabolites play a key role in the host defense against pathogenic microorganisms, shape the immune system, and impact the resistance to chronic disease. The metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota contributes significantly to the conversion of diet components to molecules that can be absorbed and metabolized by the host. The metabolic capacity of the intestinal microbiota by far exceeds the metabolic capacity of the hosts. Collectively, gut microbes support the digestion of the major nutrients, i.e. carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, and impact uptake and conversion of micronutrients, e.g. phenolic compounds and minerals. This chapter provides an overview on the metabolism of carbohydrates and bile salts by pig microbiota.

Min-Sub Lee ◽  
Steven J. Bensinger

AbstractCholesterol is a critical lipid for all mammalian cells, ensuring proper membrane integrity, fluidity, and biochemical function. Accumulating evidence indicates that macrophages rapidly and profoundly reprogram their cholesterol metabolism in response to activation signals to support host defense processes. However, our understanding of the molecular details underlying how and why cholesterol homeostasis is specifically reshaped during immune responses remains less well understood. This review discusses our current knowledge of cellular cholesterol homeostatic machinery and introduces emerging concepts regarding how plasma membrane cholesterol is partitioned into distinct pools. We then discuss how proinflammatory signals can markedly reshape the cholesterol metabolism of macrophages, with a focus on the differences between MyD88-dependent pattern recognition receptors and the interferon signaling pathway. We also discuss recent work investigating the capacity of these proinflammatory signals to selectively reshape plasma membrane cholesterol homeostasis. We examine how these changes in plasma membrane cholesterol metabolism influence sensitivity to a set of microbial pore-forming toxins known as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins that specifically target cholesterol for their effector functions. We also discuss whether lipid metabolic reprogramming can be leveraged for therapy to mitigate tissue damage mediated by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins in necrotizing fasciitis and other related infections. We expect that advancing our understanding of the crosstalk between metabolism and innate immunity will help explain how inflammation underlies metabolic diseases and highlight pathways that could be targeted to normalize metabolic homeostasis in disease states.

2022 ◽  
Keiichi Tsukinoki ◽  
Tetsuro Yamamoto ◽  
Jiro Saito ◽  
Wakako Sakaguchi ◽  
Keiichiro Iguchi ◽  

While the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a threat to public health as the number of cases and COVID-19-related deaths are increasing worldwide, the incidence of the virus infection are extremely low in Japan compared with many other countries. To explore the reason for this strange phenomenon, we hypothesized the high prevalence of natural secretory IgA in saliva as mucosal IgA reacting with SARS-CoV-2, and thus surveyed the positivity for, as well as levels of, such reactive salivary IgA in a cohort of Japanese people of a wide range of age. The major findings were that 95/180 (52.78 %) of overall individuals who had not been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were positive for salivary IgA with the levels ranging from 0.002 to 3.272 ng/ml, and that there may be a negative trend in positivity for salivary IgA according to age. These results suggest a role of mucosal IgA in host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2022 ◽  
Joni Nikkanen ◽  
Yew Ann Leong ◽  
William Charles Krause ◽  
Denis Dermadi ◽  
J. Alan Maschek ◽  

Current concepts in evolutionary medicine propose that trade-offs and mismatches with a shifting environment increase disease risk. While biological sex also impacts disease prevalence, contributions of environmental pressures to sex-biased diseases remain unexplored. Here, we show that sex-dependent hepatic programs confer a robust (~300%) survival advantage for male mice during lethal bacterial infection. The transcription factor BCL6, which masculinizes hepatic gene expression at puberty, is essential for this advantage. However, protection by BCL6 comes at a cost following dietary excess, resulting in overt fatty liver and glucose intolerance in males. Deleting hepatic BCL6 reverses these phenotypes but markedly lowers male fitness during infection, thus establishing a sex-dependent tradeoff between host defense and metabolic systems. We suggest that these tradeoffs, coupled with current environmental pressures, drive metabolic disease in males.

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