hardening process
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 47-52
Maria Badalyan ◽  
Amalya Karapetyan ◽  
Hovsep Hoveyan

The possibility of using a clinker-free binder as an alternative to expensive and energy-intensive Portland cement is being considered. The pozzolanizing effect of volcanic rocks is presented, where along with the binding of calcium hydroxide by silica to hydrosilicates, the binding of calcium hydroxide by “free” alumina to hydroaluminates also takes place. In the process of hardening of the clinker-free binder, the phase mineralogical composition of the formed new formations differs from the new formations that are synthesized during hardening of traditional Portland cement, which explains the difference in their properties. The new formations that are formed during the hardening process of clinker-free cements are mainly low-basic hydrosilicates, and alkaline aluminosilicates give the cast-in-place stone water resistance, frost resistance, waterproofing, etc., in a word, durability. Physical and chemical studies of the hardening process of clinker-free lime-igneous cements have been carried out, which indicates the possibility of replacing the energy-intensive Portland cement with cheaper clinker-free cement.

Oleg Veretelnik ◽  
Mykola M. Tkachuk ◽  
Serhii Kravchenko ◽  
Mariia Saverska ◽  
Serhii Kutsenko ◽  

Research and experimental studies of stress-strain state of discrete-continual hardened machine parts are presented in this work. This hardening method is distinguished by incorporation of numerous hard spots into the surface layer of one of the bodies. Meanwhile the other part is covered by a continuous corundum layer. Correspondingly, a network of microchannels for lubricant is formed between the bodies. Furthermore the contact loads are intensified in the vicinity of the harder material in the discrete zones. As a result the strength and durability of the loaded parts is increased. The technological parameters of the hardening process have great impact on the resulting characteristics. In particular, this concern the shape of the discrete hardening zones and the material properties of the corundum layer. These factors were varied in stress-strain analyses of the contacting bodies. The dependence of the stress-strain state characteristics on the varied parameters was established. The justified recommendations regarding the technological parameters of the discrete-continual hardening have been developed. Keywords: stress-strain state,  discrete-continual hardening,  contact interaction, finite element method, contact pressure, machine parts

2021 ◽  
Abbas Rahi ◽  
Mahdi Hosseinpour ◽  
Behrouz Mahdikhani ◽  
Elham Inanloo

Abstract End-milling is a cutting technology that removes material from machined workpieces by end mill and is widely used to manufacture parts. Moreover, this process is prone to vibration due to low stiffness. Also, nitriding is a surface hardening process with lots of effects on mechanical properties. This study investigated the effect of gas nitriding on a nitrided end mill in comparison with an unnitrided end mill and showed significant improvement in vibration peak and RMS during end milling. To clarify the reason for this improvement this article carried out a modal test to show how nitriding affected the natural frequency and damping ratio of the nitrided and unnitrided samples and showed that tool rigidity remained the same while damping ratio increased so we claimed nitriding improved damping ratio without change of tool rigidity. For verifying this claim we modeled, meshed, and analyzed for obtaining tool natural frequency both for nitrided and unnitrided tool and compared with extracted natural frequencies from each tool FFT diagram during straight grooving. We showed that the natural frequencies were the same with less than 3 percent change so we concluded that nitriding led to better tool performance by increasing the damping ratio without any significant change in the tool stiffness.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2379
Noor L. Yusof ◽  
Noor-Azira Abdul Mutalib ◽  
U. K. Nazatul ◽  
A. H. Nadrah ◽  
Nurain Aziman ◽  

Food contamination leading to the spoilage and growth of undesirable bacteria, which can occur at any stage along the food chain, is a significant problem in the food industry. In the present work, biopolymer polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polybutylene succinate/tapioca starch (PBS/TPS) films incorporating Biomaster-silver (BM) and SANAFOR® (SAN) were prepared and tested as food packaging to improve the lifespan of fresh chicken breast fillets when kept in a chiller for seven days. The incorporation of BM and SAN into both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity and could prolong the storability of chicken breast fillets until day 7. However, PBS + SAN 2%, PBS/TPS + SAN 1%, and PBS/TPS + SAN 2% films showed the lowest microbial log growth. In quality assessment, incorporation of BM and SAN into both film types enhanced the quality of the chicken breast fillets. However, PBS + SAN 1% film showed the most notable enhancement of chicken breast fillet quality, as it minimized color variation, slowed pH increment, decreased weight loss, and decelerated the hardening process of the chicken breast fillets. Therefore, we suggest that the PBS + SAN and PBS/TPS + SAN films produced in this work have potential use as antimicrobial packaging in the future.

Aiman Yousif ◽  
Muhammad Ijaz ◽  
Hamza Iftikhar ◽  
Aqsa Mustafa ◽  
Nerum Tasneem ◽  

This study was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory in Pakistan. Suckers obtained from the banana cv. Grand Nain to explore the effects of different concentrations of BAP and IAA. After inoculation with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and the Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) the suckers first turn into the brown after 5-10 days then turned into a green mass-like structure after 30 days. From this mass-like structure shoots and roots were developed. Among the different concentrations, BAP 7.5 mg/l and IAA 0.5 mg/l showed the highest number of shoots 0.75, 2.75 and 6.25 per explant and shows the highest shoot lengths which 1.03 cm, 2.45 cm and 3.40 cm respectively. IAA is essential for only roots proliferation. The roots of different lengths were produced when the concentration of IAA 0.5 mg/l was used and 2.93 cm, 4.63 cm and 5.88 cm roots length produced at 15, 30 and 45 days after occultation respectively. Then these plants were transferred to the greenhouse for hardening acclimatization with the environment, the hardening process took place, and the established plantlets are ready for planting.

Sabria Malika Mansour

The present work investigates the use of an alumino-silicate material, the pyrophyllite as cement substitution, synthetic polypropylene fibers and binder to create an unusual ultra-performance fiber concrete; new composite, which offers a wide field of possible use in construction industry. Effect of pyrophyllite on the physical-mechanical properties is analyzed. One reference fiber concrete without pyrophyllite and three fiber concretes containing 10%, 20%, 30% of pyrophyllite were elaborated. Results show that the pyrophyllite affects the characteristics of the concrete. Indeed, in the hardened state, the density of fiber concrete decreased with pyrophyllite rate increasing. Moreover, the use of pyrophyllite slows down the hardening process of concrete, consequently producing at early ages, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths and elastic modulus of concretes approaching without exceeding those of the reference fiber concrete. The fiber concretes are also considered to be of good quality. It seems that the rate of 10 % of pyrophyllite generates the best physical-mechanical performances that approach those of the reference fiber concrete. The use of pyrophyllite as a cement substitution is beneficial since it can help to decrease the production of cement; the amount of CO2 released and protects the environment.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document