molecular size
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Shahzad ◽  
M. Chaudhry ◽  
M. G. Shahid ◽  
A. Ahsan ◽  
M. Dar ◽  

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 372 ◽  
pp. 131291
Thoa T.L. Nguyen ◽  
Bernadine M. Flanagan ◽  
Keyu Tao ◽  
Dongdong Ni ◽  
Michael J. Gidley ◽  

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 212
Hongyan Li ◽  
Zhijun Chen ◽  
Yifan Mu ◽  
Ruolan Ma ◽  
Laxi Namujila ◽  

Horisenbada, prepared by the soaking, steaming, and baking of millets, is a traditional Mongolian food and is characterized by its long shelf life, convenience, and nutrition. In this study, the effect of processing on the starch structure, textural, and digestive property of millets was investigated. Compared to the soaking treatment, steaming and baking significantly reduced the molecular size and crystallinity of the millet starch, while baking increased the proportion of long amylose chains, partially destroyed starch granules, and formed a closely packed granular structure. Soaking and steaming significantly reduced the hardness of the millets, while the hardness of baked millets is comparable to that of raw millet grains. By fitting digestive curves with a first-order model and logarithm of the slope (LOS) plot, it showed that the baking treatment significantly reduced the digestibility of millets, the steaming treatment increased the digestibility of millets, while the soaked millets displayed a similar digestive property with raw millets, in terms of both digestion rate and digestion degree. This study could improve the understanding of the effects of processing on the palatability and health benefits of Horisenbada.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Noor Momin ◽  
Joseph R. Palmeri ◽  
Emi A. Lutz ◽  
Noor Jailkhani ◽  
Howard Mak ◽  

AbstractDirect injection of therapies into tumors has emerged as an administration route capable of achieving high local drug exposure and strong anti-tumor response. A diverse array of immune agonists ranging in size and target are under development as local immunotherapies. However, due to the relatively recent adoption of intratumoral administration, the pharmacokinetics of locally-injected biologics remains poorly defined, limiting rational design of tumor-localized immunotherapies. Here we define a pharmacokinetic framework for biologics injected intratumorally that can predict tumor exposure and effectiveness. We find empirically and computationally that extending the tumor exposure of locally-injected interleukin-2 by increasing molecular size and/or improving matrix-targeting affinity improves therapeutic efficacy in mice. By tracking the distribution of intratumorally-injected proteins using positron emission tomography, we observe size-dependent enhancement in tumor exposure occurs by slowing the rate of diffusive escape from the tumor and by increasing partitioning to an apparent viscous region of the tumor. In elucidating how molecular weight and matrix binding interplay to determine tumor exposure, our model can aid in the design of intratumoral therapies to exert maximal therapeutic effect.

Chiyoko Miyata ◽  
Yoshihide Matoba ◽  
Makiko Mukumoto ◽  
Yoshiaki Nakagawa ◽  
Hisashi Miyagawa

2022 ◽  
pp. 199-222
Gamze Ersan ◽  
Mahmut Selim Ersan

In the last decades, numerous research studies have been focused on the mitigation of different classes of contaminants by varying types of NPs. Treatment mechanisms were controlled by properties of contaminants (e.g., organic vs inorganic, molecular size, and hydrophobicity, etc.), NPs (e.g., surface charge, area, pore size, and surface functional groups, etc.), and aqueous water (e.g., organic matter types, pH, ionic strength, surfactants, and temperature). Therefore, this chapter includes (1) a literature summary for the removal of contaminants by carbon- and metal-based NPs, (2) a discussion on the controlling mechanisms for the mitigation of contaminants by carbon- and metal-based NPs, and (3) an evaluation on the application and implication of carbon- and metal-based NPs in environmental studies. This chapter also identifies future research needs and challenges on the application of carbon- and metal-based NPs for environmental remediation.

2022 ◽  
Shiying Li ◽  
Huanhuan Yang ◽  
Sen Wang ◽  
Jianguo Wang ◽  
Weibin Fan ◽  

Aluminosilicate zeolite has a porous structure with opening comparable to molecular size, which endows it with unique adsorptive and catalytic properties that are highly dependent on its chemical compositions and...

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Takashi Nishiyama ◽  
Koji Umezawa ◽  
Kentaro Yamada ◽  
Masaharu Takahashi ◽  
Satoshi Kunita ◽  

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of hepatitis E. HEV virions in circulating blood and culture media are quasi-enveloped, while those in feces are nonenveloped. The capsid (ORF2) protein associated with an enveloped HEV virion is reported to comprise the translation product of leucine 14/methionine 16 to 660 (C-terminal end). However, the nature of the ORF2 protein associated with fecal HEV remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the molecular size of the ORF2 protein among fecal HEV, cell-culture-generated HEV (HEVcc), and detergent-treated protease-digested HEVcc. The ORF2 proteins associated with fecal HEV were C-terminally truncated and showed the same size as those of the detergent-treated protease-digested HEVcc virions (60 kDa), in contrast to those of the HEVcc (68 kDa). The structure prediction of the ORF2 protein (in line with previous studies) demonstrated that the C-terminal region (54 amino acids) of an ORF2 protein is in flux, suggesting that proteases target this region. The nonenveloped nondigested HEV structure prediction indicates that the C-terminal region of the ORF2 protein moves to the surface of the virion and is unnecessary for HEV infection. Our findings clarify the maturation of nonenveloped HEV and will be useful for studies on the HEV lifecycle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yong Ren ◽  
Lei Zhou ◽  
Xin Li

Novel strategies to optimize the photophysical properties of organic fluorophores are of great significance to the design of imaging probes to interrogate biology. While the 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (HBT) fluorophore has attracted considerable attention in the field of fluorescence imaging, its short emission in the blue region and low quantum yield restrict its wide application. Herein, by mimicking the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) effect, we designed a series of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (HBT) derivatives by complexing the heteroatoms therein with a boron atom to enhance the chance of the tautomerized keto-like resonance form. This strategy significantly red-shifted the emission wavelengths of HBT, greatly enhanced its quantum yields, and caused little effect on molecular size. Typically, compounds 12B and 13B were observed to emit in the near-infrared region, making them among the smallest organic structures with emission above 650 nm.

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