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Food Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 107 ◽  
pp. 102196
Philip Thornton ◽  
Jeroen Dijkman ◽  
Mario Herrero ◽  
Lili Szilagyi ◽  
Laura Cramer

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 190
Jacques Cabaret ◽  
Ludivine Fortin

The attitude towards animals in research depends on both the role of the stakeholder and their personal characteristics. Most studies on the subject have been carried out on stakeholders from biomedical research institutes with comparatively few sociological studies on stakeholders from agricultural research centers. Previous findings suggest that animal caretakers at agricultural research centers felt undervalued by the hierarchy, and that animal reification was present in the sector. This may indicate that a lack of consideration for the animal subjects correlates with an inadequate sensitivity towards humans. Since these findings were published twenty years ago, there has been an increasing emphasis on the importance and actions of ethics committees in research, animal welfare bodies, and public concern for animals, which may have impacted the current perspective. To better understand current degrees of animal reification amongst stakeholders of agricultural research, we conducted semi-directive interviews at a leading agricultural research institute in France (INRAE). The interviews targeted both animal caretakers and researchers who were involved in the study of infectious diseases in livestock, or the behavior of horses and quails. After having transcribed the recorded interviews into text, semi-automatized analyses were carried out to categorize them into distinct groups, from which the most characteristic words and sentences were extracted. Three groups of stakeholders were identified: (i) animal caretakers involved in invasive infectious disease research; (ii) animal caretakers involved in behavioral research; and (iii) researchers. The findings show that animal caretakers felt acknowledged by their hierarchy. It is possible the increased skill criteria for people recruited into this position over the years, combined with greater prospects for continuous learning and development in the profession, may have fostered a more respectful regard across the hierarchy. The animal caretakers clearly expressed that their primary objective was to successfully execute the research protocols and that the animals were viewed as prototypes for research, with which they could, on occasion, develop a bond with. The bond was more important for animal caretakers involved in behavioral studies than for those involved in the study of infectious diseases, where invasive biological sampling and restraining of the animals is required. Researchers prioritized the procurement of robust data to test hypotheses, analyze phenomena, and publish their results. Their concern for the animals rather reflected the views of the general public opposed to thought-out personal opinions on the matter; this is possibly due to their comparatively limited interaction with the animals. They considered the animals in abstract terms that were indicative of reification. This study concludes that animal reification is still present, albeit to varying degrees amongst the stakeholders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 759-767
Madina Sadygova ◽  
Sergei Gaponov ◽  
Galina Shutareva ◽  
Natalya Tsetva ◽  
Tatyana Kirillova ◽  

Introduction. Durum wheat is vital for high-quality pasta production. The present research tested the high technological potential of durum wheat varieties developed in the Saratov region. The research objective was to study the effect of the quality of durum wheat on the quality of pasta. Study objects and methods. The study featured durum wheat of the following varieties: Saratovskaya Zolotistaya, Valentina, Nik, Krasnokutka 13, Luch 25, Pamyati Vasilchuka, Bezenchukskaya 182 and Annushka. The experiment involved an original PSL-13 press for standard spaghetti with a diameter of 1.8 mm. The content of protein, raw gluten, and their quality were determined by standard methods. The cooking properties of the pasta were evaluated according to the method developed in the South-Eastern Federal Agricultural Research Center. Results and discussion. The indicators of raw gluten and protein are known to correlate. The samples of Saratovskaya Zolotistaya and Luch 25 had a high protein content of 15.3 and 15.6%, respectively, as well as a high content of raw gluten (33.2 and 35.1%, respectively). The raw gluten of Saratov varieties proved to be much better than in the control samples. The indicator of microSDs sedimentation was 30–36 mm. The strength of spaghetti followed the increase in crude gluten (33–35%) and protein (15.3–15.6%), which is typical of this type of pasta. The strength, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), and sharing force (R2 = 0.92) depended on the protein content. Conclusion. The study established the following optimal selection criteria for durum wheat varieties to be used in strong spaghetti production: virtuosity – 80%, raw gluten – 33–35%, protein content – 5–7% higher than normal, raw gluten – 72–80 units.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 183
Santosh Ranva ◽  
Yudh Vir Singh ◽  
Neelam Jain ◽  
Ram Swaroop Bana ◽  
Ramesh Chand Bana ◽  

Rice–wheat (RW) rotation is the largest agriculture production system in South Asia with a multifaceted role in maintaining the livelihood of people. The customary practices and indiscriminate use of synthetic fertilizers have culminated in the decline of its productivity and profitability during the past two decades, thus affecting the sustainability of wheat. Safe Rock® Minerals (SRM) is a multi-nutrient rich natural rock mineral with great potential to manage soil degradation, reducing the input of fertilizers, improving soil fertility, and plant health. Thus, a field trial was conducted at the research farm of ICAR—Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from 2016 to 2018 to evaluate the impact of Safe Rock® Minerals (SRM) on biometric parameters, productivity, quality, and nutrient uptake by conventional wheat and System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) in the wheat–rice cropping system. The results indicate that SWI performed better in terms of growth, yield, and quality parameters than conventional wheat. Among nutrient management practices; the highest growth, yield, and yield attributes of wheat were achieved with the use of SRM application 250 kg ha−1 + 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF). SRM application also increased grain protein content significantly. In conclusion, the integrated use of SRM with organic manures can serve as an eco-friendly approach for sustainable wheat production.

Hannah Levenson ◽  
David R. Tarpy

Pollinators are important both ecologically and economically, with the majority of flowering plants and many of the world’s crop species relying on animal pollination—the majority of which is provided by bees. However, documented pollinator population decline threatens ecosystem functioning and human well-being. As such, conservation methods such as augmented pollinator habitat are becoming popular tools to combat pollinator losses. In our study, we evaluate an initiative to plant pollinator habitat at all North Carolina agricultural research stations to ensure that these efforts result in improved bee communities. From 2016 to 2018, we found significant increases in bee abundance and community diversity. These increases depended on the quality of habitat, with plots with higher cover and more plant diversity supporting larger, more diverse bee communities. Although the habitat positively supported bee communities, we found that overall habitat quality degraded over the course of our study. This points to the need of regular upkeep and maintenance of pollinator habitat in order for it to appropriately support bee communities. Future long-term studies on pollinators will be important as natural fluctuations in bee populations may limit findings and many knowledge gaps on native bees still persist.

2022 ◽  
Mei Bai ◽  
Zoe Loh ◽  
David W. T. Griffith ◽  
Debra Turner ◽  
Richard Eckard ◽  

Abstract. The accumulation of gases into our atmosphere is a growing global concern that requires considerable quantification of the emission rates and mitigate the accumulation of gases in the atmosphere, especially the greenhouse gases (GHG). In agriculture there are many sources of GHG that require attention in order to develop practical mitigation strategies. Measuring these GHG sources often rely on highly technical instrumentation originally designed for applications outside of the emissions research in agriculture. Although the open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic techniques are used in agricultural research currently, insight into their contributing error to emissions research has not been the focus of these studies. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability and performance (accuracy and precision) of OPL and OP-FTIR spectroscopic techniques for measuring gas concentration from agricultural sources. We measured the mixing ratios of trace gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3), downwind of point and area sources with known release rates. The OP-FTIR provided the best performance regarding stability of drift in stable conditions. The CH4 OPL accurately detected the low background (free-air) level of CH4; however, the NH3 OPL was unable to detect the background values < 10 ppbv.

Vipin Kumar ◽  
K.C. Gupta ◽  
S.K. Jain ◽  
Nitin Chawla

Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is cultivated in almost all parts of world covering more than 50 countries spread over Asia, Africa Europe, Australia, north America and South America countries and is the second most important food legumes crop after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chickpea has played a major role in realization of pulse Revolution in india making the country near self-sufficient in pluses. Gram is extensively grow in india. Due to its high nutritional value and its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, its more widely cultivated rabi pulse crop. The gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is most important pest of chickpea. Many pesticides were so far tested against this pest but due to over use of these pesticides resistance, residue and resurgence problems arises, beside destruction of natural enemies. Methods: To determination of per cent pod damage and yield of chickpea due to different larval density of H. armigera is an important tool to reduce the cost of cultivation by avoiding the unnecessary use of pesticides. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted in arranged in a completed randomized design with four replications. The pots were placed under natural field conditions and take observation at Research farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur during 2015-16 and 2016-17. Result: The results revealed that least per cent pod damage (29.05, 24.78%) was recorded when the larval population was one per plant, while the maximum pod damage (64.55 and 67.76%) was recorded during 2015-16 and 2016-17, respectively. The simple liner correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant positive correlation (r= 0.989 and 0.999) between the larval density and per cent pod damage. Further, a significant correlation was noticed between larval density and number of healthy pods per plant, reduction in yield, yield per plant, total number of pod and damaged pods were -0.964, -0.976; 0.98, 0.986; -0.98, -0.986; 0.117, 0.126 and; 0.985 and 0.992, respectively during 2015-16 and 2016-17.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Shah Masaud Khan ◽  
Abid Ali ◽  
Ijaz Hussain ◽  
Muhammad Saeed ◽  
Izhar Hussain ◽  

The research was carried out on the “Evaluation of Radish genotypes with special study on sowing geometry at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab Peshawar”. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. The experiment comprised with two factors, one was sowing dates(19th Oct., 4th., Nov., and 19th Nov) and the other was different genotypes (Mino, Local Red and Local White). The data were recorded on Days to germination, Germination (%), Days to edible maturity, Number of leaves plant-1, Leaf length plant-1 (cm), Root length plant-1 (cm), Root diameter plant-1 (cm), root fresh weight (g), Plot weight (kg) and yield (t ha-1). Sowing dates significantly affected all yield parameters. Sowing of radish on 19th October has more number of Leaves (17.44 leaves) plant-1, Leaf length plant(22.611 cm), root length plant-1(24.058 cm), root diameter plant-1(3.12 cm) fresh root weight (503.95g), the maximum plot weight (50.90 kg plot-1) and higher yield (62.36t ha-1) was observed whereas the crop sown on 19th November showed the minimum days to germination (8.88 days), germination percentage (96.88%) and minimum days to maturity (53 days). Among genotypes Mino take minimum days to germinate(8.22 days), maximum germination percentage (99.22), minimum days to maturity (52.778), maximum number of leaves (19.44 leaves), leaf length (23.422 cm), greater root length (24.588 cm), maximum root diameter (3.53 cm), higher root fresh weight (536.62g), higher weight per plot (52.22 kg) and maximum yield (63.54t ha-1). The results emphasized that the suitable time of sowing for Mino genotype is 19th October for Peshawar.

2022 ◽  
Parvaneh Nowbakht ◽  
Lilian O'Sullivan ◽  
Fiona Cawkwell ◽  
David P. Wall ◽  
Paul Holloway

2022 ◽  
Imane Laraba ◽  
Mark Busman ◽  
David M. Geiser ◽  
Kerry O'Donnell

Recent studies on multiple continents indicate members of the Fusarium tricinctum species complex (FTSC) are emerging as prevalent pathogens of small-grain cereals, pulses, and other economically important crops. These understudied fusaria produce structurally diverse mycotoxins, among which enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) are the most frequent and of greatest concern to food and feed safety. Herein a large survey of fusaria in the Fusarium Research Center and Agricultural Research Service culture collections was undertaken to assess species diversity and mycotoxin potential within the FTSC. A 151-strain collection originating from diverse hosts and substrates from different agroclimatic regions throughout the world was selected from 460 FTSC strains to represent the breadth of FTSC phylogenetic diversity. Evolutionary relationships inferred from a 5-locus dataset, using maximum likelihood and parsimony, resolved the 151 strains as 24 phylogenetically distinct species, including nine that are new to science. Of the five genes analyzed, nearly full-length phosphate permease sequences contained the most phylogenetically informative characters, establishing its suitability for species-level phylogenetics within the FTSC. Fifteen of the species produced ENNs, MON, the sphingosine analog 2-amino-14,16- dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (AOD), and the toxic pigment aurofusarin (AUR) on a cracked corn kernel substrate. Interestingly, the five earliest diverging species in the FTSC phylogeny (i.e., F. iranicum, F. flocciferum, F. torulosum, Fusarium spp. FTSC 8 and 24) failed to produce AOD and MON, but synthesized ENNs and/or AUR. Moreover, our reassessment of nine published phylogenetic studies on the FTSC identified 11 additional novel taxa, suggesting this complex comprises at least 36 species.

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