sewage water
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Shahzad ◽  
M. Chaudhry ◽  
M. G. Shahid ◽  
A. Ahsan ◽  
M. Dar ◽  

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.

Jerome R ◽  
Brahmari Shetty ◽  
Dhanraj Ganapathy ◽  
Preethika Murugan ◽  
Raji Atchudan ◽  

Abstract Modification of anodes with highly biocompatible materials could enhance bacterial adhesion, growth, and improve the rate of electron-transfer ability in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As such, there has been increasing interest in the development of innovative anode materials to prepare high-performance MFCs. We report the synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with thermally expanded graphite (TEG) composite coated carbon felt (CF) as anode for MFCs. For this purpose, as-synthesized PEDOT:PSS/TEG composite was characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies which indicated successful incorporation of TEG within PEDOT:PSS film. Furthermore, the electrochemical activity of the PEDOT:PSS/TEG coated CF was employed as the anode in the MFCs with sewage water as an anolyte. PEDOT:PSS/[email protected] anode exhibited higher ion-transfer ability, superior bio-electrochemical conductivity, and excellent capacitance. Using the PEDOT:PSS/[email protected] anode, we have constructed MFCs which exhibited good power (68.7 mW/m2) and current (969.3 mA/m2) densities compared to the unmodified CF based anode. The reliability of the MFCs performance was also investigated by testing three independently prepared MFCs with PEDOT:PSS/[email protected] anodes which all showed a constant voltage (~540 mV) due to the higher stability and biocompatibility of PEDOT:PSS/[email protected]

Ramabele T. Katleho ◽  
Sissay Mekbib ◽  
Benad Omondi Abong'o

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (10 (114)) ◽  
pp. 6-15
Sergii Shamanskyi ◽  
Sergii Boichenko ◽  
Viktoria Khrutba ◽  
Olena Barabash ◽  
Iryna Shkilniuk ◽  

Conventional process schemes of municipal sewage water treatment, advantages, and disadvantages of the methods applied when removing biogenic elements were considered. It was shown that the existing shortcomings cause additional explicit costs and difficulties when disposing of the resulting waste. Low efficiency of the removal processes themselves causing residual concentrations of biogenic elements in the treated sewage water was also shown. A process scheme for treating municipal sewage water was proposed. It includes the use of a photobioreactor of a proposed design for the removal of biogenic elements due to the metabolism of microalgae. It was experimentally shown that the use of Euglena gracilis strain for removal of phosphates in initial concentrations of 4, 7, and 14 mg/dm3 from sewage water is the most efficient way. It makes it possible to reduce these concentrations to residual 0…0.55 mg/dm3 in four days. A 3.75…5.58 times increment of microalgae biomass during this period was also shown. A mathematical model was constructed for calculating the time of staying the sewage water and microalgae mixture in a photobioreactor to achieve the required degree of removal of biogenic elements. Based on the proposed model and experimental studies, the required time of staying in the rector working area was calculated. It was shown that with the use of Euglena gracilis strain but without removal of biogenic elements at previous purification stages (process schemes including only mechanical purification), the time of mixture staying in the working zone was 37.81 hrs. With partial removal of biogenic elements at the stage of biological treatment (0.55 mg/dm3 total nitrogen, 0.91 mg/dm3 ammonium nitrogen, 0.44 mg/dm3 phosphates), this time was reduced to 26.66 hrs. It was found that the use of Euglena gracilis strain instead of Chlorella vulgaris (FC-16) in the removal of phosphates results in a 2-time increase in the process efficiency and a 50 % decrease in time of mixture staying in the working zone. Recommendations for calculating geometric parameters of photobioreactors of the proposed design were given for use in the process schemes

2021 ◽  
Ahsan Shahzad ◽  
Hamaad Raza Ahmad ◽  
Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi ◽  
Muhammad Sabir ◽  
Muhammad Ashar Ayub ◽  

Abstract The reduction in the fresh water supply and increase in the domestic effluents with increase in population and urbanization in the Pakistan force the farmers to use untreated sewage water for the irrigation purposes. Besides high nutrient content Sewage water also have source of metal contamination in the food chain. The present field study was conducted to compare the nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) contamination in vegetables grown on soils irrigated with sewage water and canal water in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. The Ni, Cu and Pb contamination was assessed using soil quality indices i.e., contamination factor (CF), metal translocation factor (MTF), pollution load index (PLI), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and ecological risk index (ERI) were calculated in the collected samples. The physico-chemical properties of soil and water samples were determined. Based on the results, it was revealed that sewage irrigated areas were at higher risks of metals contamination compared to canal irrigated areas. From the studied metals, Pb showed highest contamination potential based on the soil quality indices. In sewage irrigated sites, metal concentrations were found higher in edible parts of the vegetables confirming that sewage water contains and supply more metals than canal irrigated water and pose more health and ecological risks.

Irriga ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 573-584
Fernando Lopes Godinho ◽  
Edson Fagne dos Santos ◽  
Silvanio Rodrigues dos Santos ◽  
Marcos Koiti Kondo ◽  
Marffizia Amaral Rodrigues Ferreira

CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-HÍDRICA DO SOLO APÓS CULTIVOS FERTIRRIGADOS COM ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA TRATADA*   FERNANDO LOPES GODINHO1; EDSON FAGNE DOS SANTOS2; SILVANIO RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS1, MARCOS KOITI KONDO1; MARFFÍSIA AMARAL RODRIGUES FERREIRA1   1Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Rua Reinaldo Viana, 2630, Bico da Pedra, 39440-000, Janaúba, MG, Brasil, [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] 2Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida P.H Rolfs, S/N. CEP: 36570-900, Viçosa – MG, Brasil, email: [email protected] *Artigo proveniente da dissertação de mestrado do primeiro autor.     1 RESUMO   Elevadas cargas de esgoto são destinadas aos corpos d'água no Brasil, podendo essa realidade ser mudada com o emprego de tecnologias para o uso agrícola desse resíduo. Assim, objetivou-se quantificar as mudanças no movimento e retenção de água em Latossolo Vermelho Eutrófico, após cultivo sequencial com a aplicação de água residuária sanitária tratada (ART). Para isso, foram utilizados cinco tratamentos (0= água limpa e adubação mineral; 50%; 100%; 150% e 200% da dose de ART limitada pelo elemento referência K+ nos 3 primeiros cultivos e; 0= água limpa e adubação mineral; 100%; 200%; 300% e 400% da dose de ART limitada pelo elemento referência Na+ no abacaxizeiro), no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Observou-se uma diminuição linear de 0,0972 mm h-1, 0,0997 mm h-1 e 0,0073 cm h-1 na taxa de infiltração básica, no tempo de 1,5 h e na condutividade hidráulica, respectivamente, para cada mm de efluente adicionado no solo, além de aumentar a porcentagem de sódio trocável nas profundidades avaliadas. No entanto, tais alterações não ultrapassam os limites considerados seguros pela literatura.   Palavras-chave: infiltração; retenção de água; fertirrigação; esgoto sanitário.     GODINHO, F. L.; SANTOS, E. F.; SANTOS, S. R.; KONDO, M. K.; FERREIRA, M. A. R. PHYSICAL-HYDRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL AFTER FERTIRRIGATED CROPS WITH TREATED SANITARY WATER     2 ABSTRACT   High sewage loads are still released into water sources in Brazil. This can be changed using technologies that contributes for the use of part of this wastewater in agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate possible changes in the movement and water retention in Eutrophic Red Latosol, after sequential cultivation with the application of treated sanitary wastewater (ART). Five treatments were used (0: clean water and mineral fertilization, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% of the ART dose limited by the reference element K+ in the first 3 cultivation and 0: clean water and mineral fertilization, 100%, 200%, 300% and 400% of the ART dose, limited by the reference element Na+ in pineapple crops, in a randomized block design with four replications. A linear decrease of 0.0972 mm h-1, 0.0997 mm h-1 and 0.0073 cm h-1, respectively, was observed in the basic infiltration rate, in the time of 1.5 h, and hydraulic conductivity, for each mm effluent increased in the soil; in addition, in the percentage of exchangeable sodium at depths evaluated. However, such changes do not exceed the limits considered safe by the literature.   Keywords: infiltration; water retention; fertigation; sanitary sewage; water reuse.

2021 ◽  
Ibrahim Al-Hulail ◽  
Oscar Arauji ◽  
Ali AlZaki ◽  
Mohamed Zeghouani

Abstract Proppant placement in a tight formation is extremely challenging. Therefore, using a high viscous friction reducer (HVFR) as a fracturing fluid for stimulation treatment in tight gas reservoirs is increasing within the industry because it can transport proppant, help reduce pipe friction generated during hydraulic-fracturing treatments, and efficiently clean up similar to the lower viscosity friction reducers (FRs). In this paper the implementation of the robust HVFR that is building higher viscosity at low concentrations, which minimizes energy loss and promotes turbulent flow within the pipe during the pumping of low viscosity, is discussed in detail. Performance evaluation of the new HVFR was conducted in the laboratory and compared to the lower viscosity FR. The study consisted of viscosity measurements at 70 and 180°F, compatibility with other additives, and proppant transport capabilities. Additionally, the viscosity generated from both FRs was compared using two water sources: water well A and treated sewage water. Viscosity measurements were performed across a wide range of FR and HVFR concentrations and under varying shear rates using a digital viscometer. To validate drag reduction capabilities for this HVFR in the field, the same groundwater with low salinity and low total dissolved solids (TDS) content were used for comparison purposes. The test plan for this new HVFR was for a well to be drilled to a total depth of 17,801 ft MD (10,693 ft TVD) with a 6,016-ft lateral section. Another part of the plan was to complete 41 stages—the first stage with the toe initiator, and subsequent stages using ball drops until Stage 8, were completed using the current FR. For Stage 8, the drag reduction from the new HVFR was evaluated against the current FR only during the pad stage. Then, FR or HVFR concentrations were used, with a gradual reduction from 2 to 1 gpt without compromising proppant placement from stages 9 to 37, alternating current FR and the new HVFR every four stages. From Stage 38 to 41, the same approach was used but with treated sewage water and alternating every other stage using current FR or HVFR at 1gpt. The implementation of the new HVFR showed better friction reduction when using the same concentration of the current FR. Also, achieving better average treating pressures with lower concentration. Based on that it is a cost-effective solution and the performance is better, this lead to reduce the HVFR volume to be pumped per stage compared to the current FR. Applications/Significance/Novelty For this study, drag reduction capabilities for this new HVFR were validated in the field at higher pumping rate conditions, potentially optimizing (reducing) the polymer concentration during a freshwater application. It was shown that lower concentrations of this HVFR provided higher viscosity, which helps improve proppant transport and operation placement.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2482
Najm-ul-Seher ◽  
Maqshoof Ahmad ◽  
Iqra Ahmad ◽  
Farheen Nazli ◽  
Muhammad Zahid Mumtaz ◽  

Irrigation with sewage-contaminated water poses a serious threat to food security, particularly in developing countries. Heavy metal tolerant bacteria are sustainable alternatives for the removal of wastewater contaminants. In the present study, four lead (Pb)-tolerant strains viz. Bacillus megaterium (N8), Bacillus safensis (N11), Bacillus sp. (N18), and Bacillus megaterium (N29) were inoculated in spinach and grown in sewage water treated earthen pots separately and in combination with canal water. Results showed that Pb-tolerant strains significantly improved plant growth and antioxidant activities in spinach and reduces metal concentration in roots and leaves of spinach plants irrigated with treated wastewater. Strain Bacillus sp. (N18) followed by B. safensis (N11) caused the maximum increase in shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and leaf area compared to the uninoculated control of sewage water treated plants. These strains also improved antioxidant enzymatic activity including catalase, guaiacol peroxidase dismutase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases activities compared to the uninoculated control under sewage water conditions. Strain Bacillus sp. (N18) followed by B. safensis (N11) showed the highest reduction in nickel, cadmium, chromium, and Pb contents in roots and leaves of spinach compared to the uninoculated control plants treated with the sewage water. Such potential Pb-tolerant Bacillus strains could be recommended for the growth promotion of spinach after extensive evaluation under field conditions contaminated with wastewater.

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