Sewage Water
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Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2617
Abdullah Almohammedi ◽  
Mohamed Shaban ◽  
Huda Mostafa ◽  
Mohamed Rabia

An aluminum oxide, Al2O3, template is prepared using a novel Ni imprinting method with high hexagonal pore accuracy and order. The pore diameter after the widening process is about 320 nm. TiO2 layer is deposited inside the template using atomic layer deposition (ALD) followed by the deposition of 6 nm TiN thin film over the TiO2 using a direct current (DC) sputtering unit. The prepared nanotubular TiN/TiO2/Al2O3 was fully characterized using different analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical UV-Vis spectroscopy. Exploring the current-voltage relationships under different light intensities, wavelengths, and temperatures was used to investigate the electrode’s application before and after Au coating for H2 production from sewage water splitting without the use of any sacrificing agents. All thermodynamic parameters were determined, as well as quantum efficiency (QE) and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE). The QE was 0.25% and 0.34% at 400 mW·cm−2 for the photoelectrode before and after Au coating, respectively. Also, the activation energy was 27.22 and 18.84 kJ·mol−1, the enthalpy was 24.26 and 15.77 J·mol−1, and the entropy was 238.1 and 211.5 kJ−1·mol−1 before and after Au coating, respectively. Because of its high stability and low cost, the prepared photoelectrode may be suitable for industrial applications.

Biosensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 370
Boxin Zhang ◽  
Xingwei Hou ◽  
Cheng Zhen ◽  
Alan X. Wang

Detection of illicit drug residues from wastewater provides a new route toward community-level assessment of drug abuse that is critical to public health. However, traditional chemistry analytical tools such as high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) cannot meet the large-scale testing requirement in terms of cost, promptness, and convenience of use. In this article, we demonstrated ultra-sensitive and portable surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing (SERS) of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, from sewage water and achieved quantitative analysis through principal component analysis and partial least-squares regression. The SERS substrates adopted in this application were synthesized by in situ growth of silver nanoparticles on diatomaceous earth films, which show ultra-high sensitivity down to 10 parts per trillion in artificially contaminated tap water in the lab using a commercial portable Raman spectrometer. Based on training data from artificially contaminated tap water, we predicted the fentanyl concentration in the sewage water from a wastewater treatment plant to be 0.8 parts per billion (ppb). As a comparison, the HPLC-MS confirmed the fentanyl concentration was below 1 ppb but failed to provide a specific value of the concentration since the concentration was too low. In addition, we further proved the validity of our SERS sensing technique by comparing SERS results from multiple sewage water treatment plants, and the results are consistent with the public health data from our local health authority. Such SERS sensing technique with ultra-high sensitivity down to sub-ppb level proved its feasibility for point-of-care detection of illicit drugs from sewage water, which is crucial to assess public health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (38) ◽  
Naveen Chaudhary ◽  
Dharminder Singh ◽  
Chandradeo Narayan ◽  
Bhaskar Samui ◽  
Balvinder Mohan ◽  

Escherichia phage 590B, which was isolated from community sewage water in Chandigarh, India, exhibited lytic activity against an extensively drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate. The genome of the phage is linear, double-stranded, and 44.39 kb long. Phage 590B is a member of the Siphoviridae family and is closest to phage vB_EcoS_XY2, which was isolated in China.

Jo Ann Wong

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Humans acquire the infection either through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, commonly rats or indirect contact of contaminated water or soil. It is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in the UK with fewer than 100 reported cases a year and hence diagnosis is commonly delayed. A 51-year-old fit Caucasian gentleman was admitted with a one-week history of painless jaundice, dark urine and pale-coloured stools. This was associated with feeling unwell, anorexia, nausea and intermittent epigastric discomfort. He binges on alcohol on a weekend. He works as a telephone engineer which occasionally exposes him to sewage water. On clinical examination, he was icteric with mild right hypochondriac tenderness. Liver biopsy was performed and histologically it was suggestive of leptospirosis. He was started on a five-day course of intravenous ceftriaxone followed by two days course of oral doxycycline. His IgM leptospirosis result finally came back as positive. Due to the rarity of leptospirosis in the UK, the serological testing of leptospirosis is only performed in the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory in Porton Down, Salisbury leading to a delay in getting the result. The patient underwent an invasive procedure which can be avoided if the leptospirosis serology was ordered early and result available quickly. Fortunately, the patient made a full recovery after two months. Leptospirosis should be considered in an individual with acute hepatitis and a history of exposure to sewage.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S22

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5640
Min-Hwi Kim ◽  
Deuk-Won Kim ◽  
Gwangwoo Han ◽  
Jaehyeok Heo ◽  
Dong-Won Lee

The demand for district heating and cooling systems in block units with a heat pump that utilizes various unused energy sources for energy supply has been increasing. This study investigated experimentally the ground source heat pump (GSHP) and sewage water source heat pump (SWSHP) facilities used in block cooling and heating networks. Then, a heat pump performance prediction model was derived for utilization in future designs. Operational data for heating and cooling energy supply from an experimental site were investigated for the period between 2018 and 2020. During the cooling season, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the GSHP was approximately 4.1, and that of the SWSHP was approximately 2.9. The cooling performance of the SWSHP gradually decreased because of the fouling. The COP of the GSHP and SWSHP during the heating season was approximately 3.6 and 3.4, respectively. The results also demonstrated that, if fouling in the SWSHP can be prevented or reduced, the acquired COP can be similar to that of the GSHP. The derived prediction model serves as a good reference for engineers who require information on the performance of field operations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 403-412
Qudrat Ullah KHAN ◽  
Nabeel RIZWAN ◽  
Rafia YOUNAS ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (04) ◽  
pp. 1215-1221
Ambreena Javaid

Hudiara drain, a big sewage water body originating from India, is an important tributary of river Ravi in Pakistan. In present study, role of the drain in build-up/depletion of metal micronutrients Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in surrounding agricultural lands has been investigated. Soil samples, up to a vertical distance of 1200 m on both sides of the drain and drain water samples were collected and analysed for metal micronutrients. Soil analysis results were interpolated by using the best optimized interpolator to generate continuous variation of the selected metals. Further patterns have been identified using proximity stat with consecutive neighbouring zones of 100 m extent. Cu and Mn concentrations were higher in some drain water samples, whereas Fe and Zn were found below guidelines in all collected water samples. In adjacent agricultural land the metals did not show uniform dispersal pattern along the drain length. However, vertical pattern of distribution indicated that drain water was controlling Cu and Zn concentrations, positively, whereas it was causing a dilution effect on Fe and Mn build-up in the surrounding agricultural lands.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 663
Dimitris Zagklis ◽  
Fotios K. Katrivesis ◽  
Varvara Sygouni ◽  
Lamprini Tsarouchi ◽  
Konstantina Tsigkou ◽  

Fresh water shortages affect larger areas each year due to the increased human population combined with climate change. Reuse of treated sewage water (mostly for nonpotable uses) can have a significant impact on reducing water scarcity. Ultrafiltration membranes are widely considered as a very good candidate for the remediation of this type of water. The case of Patras’ sewage treatment plant was examined for the treatment of its secondary settling tank effluent using a pilot ultrafiltration unit to produce permeate water suitable for reuse according to Greek legislation. The physicochemical characteristics of the membrane permeate stream showed significant improvements in the quality of the produced water. Turbidity was reduced by 99%, total suspended solids were decreased by more than 94%, while COD was reduced by 37%. E. coli and Enterococcus were detected at high concentrations in the feed stream but were eliminated in the membrane permeate. The results presented herein indicate that the installed equipment is capable of producing improved quality water suitable for reuse even with the strictest limits imposed by Greek legislation.

Bionatura ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 1939-1943
Amera Marey Mohammed Hassanien (A.Marey)

Cicer Arietinum (CA) or chickpea seeds were used as a local natural coagulant, cheap and cultivable which available in Egypt that can be used to reduce turbidity from wastewater, especially sewage water instead of chemical coagulant that causes different diseases like intestinal constipation, loss of memory, convulsions, so this paper represents the use of chickpea as a natural coagulant and eco-friendly in the environment because it assumed to be safe for the human health and efficient in sewage treatment 6, So the researchers advices now to use natural coagulant as coagulant aids which has a higher ability to raise the consistency of floc and prevent of the coagulation operation. The optimum removal conditions that applied on the research were temperature =250C, pH= 3, Contact time=120 min, agitation speed for 2 minutes =80 rpm (rapid mixing), (CA) dosage is 90 mg/L, and (95.89%) turbidity reduction was achieved on the studied area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Javaria Qais Joiya ◽  
Qais Aslam

One of the important essentials of modern living is energy without which modern world cannot survive and therefore depends deeply on energy usages and energy abusage. What is important to be seen is that more than 7.8 billion people on this planet are burning fossil fuels for their daily needs. Therefore, the challenge for the 21st century is how to conserve this ‘good’ energy and how to reduce its transformation into ‘bad’ energy and at the same time enjoy a sustainable lifestyle through modern inventions of science and technology. The problems facing University of Central Punjab, Lahore (UCP) is on the one hand how to minimise the usage of energy resources and secondly, how to move away from using fosil feuls and toward usage of eco-friendly energy sources for achieving sustainability and abiding by the Goal 7 of the SDG (Affordable and Clean Energy). Keeping sustainable development and energy conservation issues in mind, UCP has already in collaboration with M/S Premier Energy embarked upon the renewable solar energy solutions and 1/4th of the total energy consumption of UCP is being produced through state-of-the-art grid-tired solar system. UCP also promotes the sagacious use of water. In UCP, processor treat sewage water. In addition, UCP promotes the use of filtered drinking Processor treat sewage water. Promote the use of filtered water instead of bottled water.

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