cancer treatments
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K Saranya ◽  
V Manivasagan ◽  
K Gopi ◽  
K Karthik ◽  

Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 355
Cindy Tofthagen ◽  
Mary Tanay ◽  
Adam Perlman ◽  
Jason Starr ◽  
Pooja Advani ◽  

Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy for which no prevention or cure exists. Cancer and cancer treatments can adversely affect nutritional status. Nutrition may play a role in development of CIPN, yet the relationship between nutrition and CIPN is not well understood. Common laboratory values measuring various aspects of nutrition (hemoglobin/hematocrit, vitamin B12, calcium, and magnesium) may be associated with CIPN. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the empirical evidence surrounding the relationship between laboratory measures of nutrition and CIPN among persons with cancer who received neurotoxic chemotherapy drugs. We conducted an extensive review of the literature to identify articles that evaluated relationships between laboratory measures of nutrition and CIPN. A total of eleven articles satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Participants in the studies had breast or colorectal cancer, lymphoma or multiple myeloma and were receiving a variety of neurotoxic drugs. Hemoglobin/hematocrit, vitamin D, albumin, and magnesium were associated with CIPN. The quality of the studies ranges from fair to good. Evidence suggests that low levels of the above-mentioned tests could be associated with CIPN but additional research is needed.

Ritopa Das ◽  
Sofia Langou ◽  
Thinh T. Le ◽  
Pooja Prasad ◽  
Feng Lin ◽  

Immunotherapy is becoming a very common treatment for cancer, using approaches like checkpoint inhibition, T cell transfer therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cancer vaccination. However, these approaches involve high doses of immune therapeutics with problematic side effects. A promising approach to reducing the dose of immunotherapeutic agents given to a cancer patient is to combine it with electrical stimulation, which can act in two ways; it can either modulate the immune system to produce the immune cytokines and agents in the patient’s body or it can increase the cellular uptake of these immune agents via electroporation. Electrical stimulation in form of direct current has been shown to reduce tumor sizes in immune-competent mice while having no effect on tumor sizes in immune-deficient mice. Several studies have used nano-pulsed electrical stimulations to activate the immune system and drive it against tumor cells. This approach has been utilized for different types of cancers, like fibrosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, human papillomavirus etc. Another common approach is to combine electrochemotherapy with immune modulation, either by inducing immunogenic cell death or injecting immunostimulants that increase the effectiveness of the treatments. Several therapies utilize electroporation to deliver immunostimulants (like genes encoded with cytokine producing sequences, cancer specific antigens or fragments of anti-tumor toxins) more effectively. Lastly, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can trigger production and activation of anti-tumor immune cells and immune reactions. Hence, the use of electrical stimulation to modulate the immune system in different ways can be a promising approach to treat cancer.

Wai Ki Wong ◽  
Bohan Yin ◽  
Ching Ying Katherine Lam ◽  
Yingying Huang ◽  
Jiaxiang Yan ◽  

Effective immunotherapy treats cancers by eradicating tumourigenic cells by activated tumour antigen-specific and bystander CD8+ T-cells. However, T-cells can gradually lose cytotoxicity in the tumour microenvironment, known as exhaustion. Recently, DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin architecture have provided novel insights into epigenetic regulations of T-cell differentiation/exhaustion, thereby controlling the translational potential of the T-cells. Thus, developing strategies to govern epigenetic switches of T-cells dynamically is critical to maintaining the effector function of antigen-specific T-cells. In this mini-review, we 1) describe the correlation between epigenetic states and T cell phenotypes; 2) discuss the enzymatic factors and intracellular/extracellular microRNA imprinting T-cell epigenomes that drive T-cell exhaustion; 3) highlight recent advances in epigenetic interventions to rescue CD8+ T-cell functions from exhaustion. Finally, we express our perspective that regulating the interplay between epigenetic changes and transcriptional programs provides translational implications of current immunotherapy for cancer treatments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Shenglan Tang ◽  
Wenhui Mao ◽  
Tomi Akinyemiju

Objective: In China, cancer accounts for one-fifth of all deaths, and exerts a heavy toll on patients, families, healthcare systems, and society as a whole. This study aims to examine the temporal trends in socio-economic and rural-urban differences in treatment, healthcare service utilization and catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) among adult cancer patients in China. We also investigate the relationship between different types of treatment and healthcare service utilization, as well as the incidence of CHE.Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative survey including 17,224 participants (234 individuals with cancer) in 2011 and 19,569 participants (368 individuals with cancer) in 2015. The study includes six different types of cancer treatments: Chinese traditional medication (TCM); western modern medication (excluding TCM and chemotherapy medications); a combination of TCM & western medication; surgery; chemotherapy; and radiation therapy. Multivariable regression models were performed to investigate the association between cancer treatments and healthcare service utilization and CHE.Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of cancer increased from 1.37% to 1.84% between 2011 and 2015. More urban patients (54%) received cancer treatment than rural patients (46%) in 2015. Patients with high socio-economic status (SES) received a higher proportion of surgical and chemotherapy treatments compared to patients with low SES in 2015. Incidence of CHE declined by 22% in urban areas but increased by 31% in rural areas. We found a positive relationship between cancer treatment and outpatient visits (OR = 2.098, 95% CI = 1.453, 3.029), hospital admission (OR = 1.961, 95% CI = 1.346, 2.857) and CHE (OR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.231, 2.620). Chemotherapy and surgery were each associated with a 2-fold increased risk of CHE.Conclusions: Significant improvements in health insurance benefit packages are necessary to ensure universal, affordable and patient-centered health coverage for cancer patients in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Hai-ni Wen ◽  
Chen-yu Wang ◽  
Jin-meng Li ◽  
Zheng Jiao

The cardiotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs presents as a challenge to both clinicians and patients. Significant advances in cancer treatments have improved patient survival rates, but have also led to the chronic effects of anti-cancer therapies becoming more prominent. Additionally, it is difficult to clinically predict the occurrence of cardiovascular toxicities given that they can be transient or irreversible, with large between-subject variabilities. Further, cardiotoxicities present a range of different symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms. These notwithstanding, mechanistic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling offers an important approach to predict cardiotoxicities and offering precise cardio-oncological care. Efforts have been made to integrate the structures of physiological and pharmacological networks into PK-PD modeling to the end of predicting cardiotoxicities based on clinical evaluation as well as individual variabilities, such as protein expression, and physiological changes under different disease states. Thus, this review aims to report recent progress in the use of PK-PD modeling to predict cardiovascular toxicities, as well as its application in anti-cancer therapies.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Ioana Cretu ◽  
Bogdan Cretu ◽  
Catalin Cirstoiu ◽  
Adrian Cursaru ◽  
Mihaela Milicescu ◽  

Background and Objectives: The occurrence of rheumatological side effects in a patient after receiving immunotherapy for cancer is becoming increasingly common. Oncologists often fail to diagnose and refer affected patients to rheumatologists. This paper presents the various rheumatological adverse events that occur after immunotherapy in patients as well as their treatment and evolution. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients were monitored between November 2018 and March 2020. The oncologist monitoring the immunotherapy-treated patients identified the occurrence of musculoskeletal side effects. The grading of toxicities was performed by both the oncologist and the rheumatologist using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE). Rheumatological treatment was administered, and for some patients, immunotherapy was discontinued. Results: The clinical presentations of the patients varied. Mild side effects (grade 1–2) were reported in a higher proportion than severe side effects (grade 3–5). Therefore, thirty-one patients had mild-to-moderate side effects, and five patients had severe side effects. Adverse reactions occurred, on average, 10 weeks after the initiation of immunotherapy; this indicated that the severity of the toxicity was dose dependent. Patients were treated with NSAIDs or prednisone, depending on the severity of the side effects, and for patients with severe manifestations, immunotherapy was discontinued. The remission of rheumatic manifestations varied depending on the grade of the manifestations. Conclusions: The clinical, biological, and ultrasound presentations of the patients with adverse events followed by cancer treatments differed from classic rheumatological manifestations. Thorough examinations of these patients by both oncologists and rheumatologists are needed in order to correctly diagnose and treat rheumatological adverse events. Multiple studies that include a larger number of participants are needed in order to better understand the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of these patients under different treatment conditions.

2022 ◽  
Dimos Katsaros ◽  
James Hawthorne ◽  
Jay Patel ◽  
Kaitlin Pothier ◽  
Timothy Aungst ◽  

UNSTRUCTURED Increased cancer prevalence and survival rates coupled with earlier patient discharges from hospitals has created a larger need for social support. Cancer care is both short-term and long-term, requiring acute treatments, treatments for remission, and long-term screenings and treatment regimens. Healthcare systems are already overwhelmed and often struggle to provide social support systems for everyone. Caregivers are limited in number, and even when they are available, they often lack necessary information, skills, or resources to meet the needs of patients with cancer. The act of caregiving presents various challenges, and caregivers themselves often need social support as well. Despite these needs, most social support programs are targeted toward patients alone. Given the prevalence of cancer and known needs of these patients and their caregivers, the ability to identify those who need social support is crucial. Further, the scalability and overall availability of social support programs is vital for successful patient care. This paper establishes the benefits of social support for both patients and caregivers coping with cancer treatments, explores innovative ways of identifying patients who may need social support using digital tools, and reviews potential advantages of digital social support programs.

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