harmful effects
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. A. Munir ◽  
K. M. Anjum ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
C. Jianming ◽  

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. M. Mousa ◽  
M. E. Taha ◽  
SH. M. ELdeighdye ◽  
A. M. Kamal

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146144482110685
Hyunyi Cho ◽  
Julie Cannon ◽  
Rachel Lopez ◽  
Wenbo Li

Concerns over the harmful effects of social media have directed public attention to media literacy as a potential remedy. Current conceptions of media literacy are frequently based on mass media, focusing on the analysis of common content and evaluation of the content using common values. This article initiates a new conceptual framework of social media literacy (SoMeLit). Moving away from the mass media-based assumptions of extant approaches, SoMeLit centers on the user’s self in social media that is in dynamic causation with their choices of messages and networks. The foci of analysis in SoMeLit, therefore, are one’s selections and values that influence and are influenced by the construction of one’s reality on social media; and the evolving characteristics of social media platforms that set the boundaries of one’s social media reality construction. Implications of the new components and dimensions of SoMeLit for future research, education, and action are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 260-264
S Ravichandran ◽  
Mahrukh Mehraj ◽  
Fathima Feroz ◽  
R M Madhumitha Sri

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet that does not supply a healthy amount of one or more nutrients. It is a condition characterized by lack of one or more essential nutrients from the diet or a surplus of some nutrients which affect the body negatively. Malnutrition consists of two types: undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition involves the deficiency of macronutrients like protein or calories and micronutrients like iron, iodine and many more. Protein energy malnutrition is caused by the inadequate intake of protein and calories. It is further classified in three types, kwashiorkor, marasmus and marasmic kwashiorkor. Malnutrition mainly affects an individual’s immune system, lean body mass, cardio-respiratory functions, muscle functions. Malnutrition can be caused due to many factors including unavailability of food, poverty, higher food prices and many more. Strategies like biofortification and supplementation are used for the treatment of malnutrition.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 220
Ana Mariel Torres-Contreras ◽  
Antoni Garcia-Baeza ◽  
Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon ◽  
Isaias Balderas-Renteria ◽  
Mónica A Ramírez-Cabrera ◽  

Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 399
Mirja Nurmio ◽  
Babak Asadi-Azarbaijani ◽  
Mi Hou ◽  
Ronja Kiviö ◽  
Jorma Toppari ◽  

Purpose and methods: To elucidate whether previous cancer treatment affects graft recovery and follicle numbers, morphology, and development in grafts, cryopreserved ovarian biopsies obtained from 18 cancer patients aged 1–24 years with and without exposure to chemotherapy were xenografted as 1 mm3 fragments to immunodeficient mice for 22 weeks with exogenous stimulation. Results: Graft recovery showed no association with chemotherapy exposure, pubertal stage, or leukemia contamination. Total follicle number per recovered graft varied between 0 and 1031 in the chemotherapy-exposed and between 0 and 502 in the non-chemotherapy-exposed group. Atretic follicles formed the largest proportion of the follicle pool in chemotherapy-exposed grafts. Increased atresia correlated with exposure to alkylating agents (mean ± SD 8866.2 ± 9316.3 mg/m2) but not with anthracyclines, pubertal stage, or leukemia contamination. Conclusion: The observation confirms the harmful effects of alkylating agents on ovarian tissue. Therapy at the median cumulative dose of 8866 mg/m2 leads to the decreased quality of cryopreserved ovarian follicles in children and young adults. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 855
Björn Asdecker

Tremendous efforts will be required in the coming decades to limit the harmful effects of climate change. This includes travel behavior, which not only has a significant impact on climate but also affects the perceived justice and trust necessary to manage the transition to net zero successfully. Technologies such as social media can promote behavioral change; unfortunately, also for the negative. Drawing on social comparison theory, social identity theory, and the theory of planned behavior, this study uses a PLS-SEM model to investigate if and under which circumstances exposure to travel-related content posted by professional influencers affects their followers’ travel intentions. It extends previous studies by explicitly focusing on influencers that use Instagram to make a living and considers the effect of pro-environmental attitudes. On the one hand, it shows that influencers are not only responsible for their travel behavior. Their content stimulates their audiences’ wanderlust through benign envy. On the other hand, the study suggests that reinforcing pro-environmental attitudes can help mitigate the negative climate effects of imitating influencer travel behavior.

2022 ◽  
Franciele Pereira Rossini ◽  
João Paulo Rodrigues Martins ◽  
Samuel Werner Moreira ◽  
Lorenzo Toscano Conde ◽  
Evens Clairvil ◽  

Abstract Despite having the ability to bioaccumulate trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), many species also present morphophysiological disorders that can hamper their use as phytoremediation plants. Since it can lead to alterations in biomass accumulation. The employment of elements that mitigate stress, such as silicon (Si), can diminish the deleterious effects caused by trace elements. The objective of this study was to analyze the anatomical and physiological modulations induced by the synergy between Cd and Si in Alternanthera tenella plants, as well as to elucidate whether Si can mitigate the harmful effects caused by Cd under in vitro conditions. Nodal segments were cultured in media containing a concentration gradient of Cd (0, 50, 100, or 200 μM) combined with two levels of Si (0 or 40 μM) for a total of eight treatments. After 34 days, the plants' anatomy, physiology, and tolerance index were analyzed. The plants presented anatomical adjustments (such as lower stomatal index and number of vessel elements), suggesting lower translocation of Cd to the aerial part. When cultured with 200 μM Cd, the plants presented the lowest Chl a/b ratio. In the presence of Si, the decline of this ratio was smaller. Plants exposed to Cd concentrations of 50 μM without Si presented a significant decrease in the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and tolerance index. The presence of Si in the medium reduced the damages caused by cadmium to the plants' physiology, resulting in greater growth and higher tolerance to this element.

Madi P. Vasquez ◽  
Rebekah J. Rylander ◽  
Jacquelyn M. Tleimat ◽  
Sarah Fritts

Numerous avian species use anthropogenic materials in constructing nests, particularly in urbanized environments. Anthropogenic materials, including plastics, have been demonstrated to have both beneficial and harmful effects on survival and reproduction. During the spring of 2018, we collected 45 Black-crested Titmouse Baeolophus atricristatus nests in San Marcos, TX, U.S. with two objectives: 1) assess and compare the mass and proportion of nest materials along an urban gradient, and 2) examine the relationship between nest materials, clutch size, and hatching success. We categorized each nest based on collection location as either urban, residential, park or rural and separated nest materials into six categories: leaves, snakeskin, twigs, moss, plastic, and non-plastic artificial materials. We then compared raw mass and proportion of mass of each nest material among urbanization categories. Nests in the urban category were 1.6-1.9 times lighter in mass than nests in other locations along the urban gradient (p = 0.01) and contained 4-5 times greater proportion, but not mass, of plastic compared to nests in all other locations. Nests in residential areas contained the greatest mass of combined anthropogenic materials. Neither clutch size nor hatching success differed based on urbanization category, nest mass, or proportions of anthropogenic or natural nest materials. The differences in mass of nests and increased proportion of plastics could have been due to a lack of natural nesting materials however, we did not estimate availability of nesting materials at any location. Results add to the growing literature that the use of anthropogenic materials in nests varies across an urban gradient, and the effect of anthropogenic materials on nesting parameters varies among species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 597
Alexander Barke ◽  
Timo Bley ◽  
Christian Thies ◽  
Christian Weckenborg ◽  
Thomas S. Spengler

The use of drop-in capable alternative fuels in aircraft can support the European aviation sector to achieve its goals for sustainable development. They can be a transitional solution in the short and medium term, as their use does not require any structural changes to the aircraft powertrain. However, the production of alternative fuels is often energy-intensive, and some feedstocks are associated with harmful effects on the environment. In addition, alternative fuels are often more expensive to produce than fossil kerosene, which can make their use unattractive. Therefore, this paper analyzes the environmental and economic impacts of four types of alternative fuels compared to fossil kerosene in a well-to-wake perspective. The fuels investigated are sustainable aviation fuels produced by power-to-liquid and biomass-to-liquid pathways. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing are used as environmental and economic assessment methods. The results of this well-to-wake analysis reveal that the use of sustainable aviation fuels can reduce the environmental impacts of aircraft operations. However, an electricity mix based on renewable energies is needed to achieve significant reductions. In addition, from an economic perspective, the use of fossil kerosene ranks best among the alternatives. A scenario analysis confirms this result and shows that the production of sustainable aviation fuels using an electricity mix based solely on renewable energy can lead to significant reductions in environmental impact, but economic competitiveness remains problematic.

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