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K Saranya ◽  
V Manivasagan ◽  
K Gopi ◽  
K Karthik ◽  

Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-08

In a situation of illiteracy at a rate of 54%, with over 80% of the population not speaking French (ANSD, 2013), it is very difficult to carry out effective development policies in Senegal without taking into account the language issue. From this point of view, the FCFA currency, which is expressed in French, poses a lot of problems for the African populations of the franc zone. The debate around this currency has so far been more focused on financial or fiduciary aspects than on the fundamental mechanisms that help to better understand the environment in which economic agents operate. Beyond its linguistic symbolism steeped in history, the FCFA creates cognitive problems that make it difficult for African populations to use it. We will try in this article to show, by an analytical approach, that the denomination of a currency involves the interaction of several fields of investigation. These are economic, historical, sociological, political, and above all, linguistic. From this angle, there is reason to be interested in the Academy of African Languages (ACALAN) in the resolution of this unit of measurement.

2022 ◽  
Blaise M. Mbembo ◽  
Clément L. Inkoto ◽  
Jean-Jacques O. Amogu ◽  
Colette Masengo Ashande ◽  
Jonas M.S. Nagahuedi ◽  

The purpose of this mini-review was to summarize and update knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of <i>Cola nitida</i>, with the view of providing baseline data for herbal drug formulation. In January 2021, a non-exhaustive online search of relevant articles was carried out on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of <i>C. nitida</i> from scientifically well-established databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The plant's scientific name as well as phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, bioactivity and toxicology were used as keywords. The chemical structures of the compounds isolated from this plant were drawn using ChemBioDraw Ultra 12.0 software. A literature survey has revealed that <i>C. nitida</i> is highly appreciated by African populations in various cultures, especially in West Africa. Phytochemical analyses showed that <i>C. nitida</i> contains interesting compounds like catechin, caffeine, epicatechin, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, bromelain, cardenolides, proanthocyanidins, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids, anthocyanins, glycosides, alkaloids, etc. The presence of these phyto-compounds in the investigated plant species justifies its used as an antimicrobial, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-coagulant agent. Thus, <i>C. nitida</i> could be used as a raw material for manufacturing efficient medication against various diseases, including sickle cell disease.

Herpetozoa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 34 ◽  
pp. 271-276
Ahmed Alshammari ◽  
Ahmed Badry ◽  
Salem Basuis ◽  
Adel A. Ibrahim ◽  
Eman El-Abd

This study presents the molecular phylogenetic relationships among Lytorhynchus diadema (Duméril, Bibron &amp; Duméril, 1854) populations in Saudi Arabia relative to populations from Africa and Asia. This phylogenetic analysis was based on mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA partial gene fragments using Neighbor-joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods. The results strongly support the monophyly of Lytorhynchus based on two concatenated genes and the 12S rRNA gene separately. Also, a significant separation is observed between the Arabian samples from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman, and the African populations from Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (Fall/Winter) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Benjamin Poku ◽  
Jean-Leopold Kabambi

Distant rural regions of Sub-Saharan Africa are often coveted by foreign investing companies for their natural resources. However, the rural populations do not always take advantage of the economic benefits resulting from those investing activities. These increasing activities do not leave without harming the health of rural communities as they rely on community-based traditional and ancestral practices such as fishing and hunting, traditional medicine, spiritual ceremonies, among others, to survive. We aimed to analyze selected indicators of public health in rural zones highly impacted by globalization factors using existing database and literature research. Given the complexity of the situation, efforts and strategies to mitigate the negative effect of globalization on the health of rural communities must include not only urgent and binding commitment of all stakeholders but also a multi-sectorial long-term approach to increase the health of rural Sub-Saharan African populations while taking advantages of local know-how.

Rupert M.H. Wharton ◽  
David Ahearne

Abstract Background Carpal coalitions have an incidence of 0.1 to 1% in Caucasians and up to 8 to 9% in African populations. They rarely cause clinical problems requiring investigation or treatment, but are commonly identified on imaging obtained for other indications. Case Description We report a case of a 35-year-old male with progressive degenerative change of incomplete coalitions of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint (STT) in the presence of bilateral complete osseous lunate–triquetral coalitions (Minnaar type 4). He was successfully treated with staged bilateral arthrodesis with excellent symptom resolution and preservation of function. Literature Review In patients with isolated STT coalition six reports of surgery exist, two of which were for arthrodesis. This is the first described case of STT arthrodesis in a patient with coexistent lunate–triquetral coalition. Clinical Relevance The STT arthrodesis remains a safe and effective treatment for STT pain even in cases of occult carpal coalition. Functional range of movement was well preserved. Level of evidence This is a Level V study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 384-391
Hennouni Mohamed Amine ◽  
Zebsa Rabah ◽  
Bensakhri Zinette ◽  
Youcefi Abdeldjalil ◽  
Bara Mouslim ◽  

Abstract The white-headed duck is a globally threatened species and its populations have become fragmented and undergone major decline in recent decades. Changes including long-term abundance (five times from 2005 to 2018) and diurnal activity budget (2010−2011 and 2017−2018) with respect to the effect of habitat features at Boussedra marsh (unprotected area) were compiled in order to fill some gaps in the status and trend of North African populations. The population size of the white-headed duck decreased over years from 2010 to 2018 by about 52.81%, and was positively associated with interior vegetation area, but not significantly with water surface area. Trends of population dynamics differed among seasons, and the number was higher in wintering than breeding season. Sleeping (44.93%, 23.74%) and feeding (59.09%, 27.43%) were the dominant diurnal activities at both the years of study, respectively. Boussedra marsh plays an important ecological role as a diurnal forging habitat and reproduction site for this threatened species and as a shelter for other waterfowl.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (3) ◽  
pp. 73-99

Through the end of the Third Republic, only tiny numbers of West African students managed to study at France’s universities. Barriers to higher education began to fall after World War II, especially after African populations collectively gained citizenship. Higher education became a high-stakes policy area, as French officials and West African students and politicians vied to influence the parameters and possibilities of the postwar order. Amid escalating concerns about West African student migrations to the metropole, French officials eventually opened an Institute of Higher Studies in Dakar. However, this inchoate institution ended up highlighting the fundamental ambiguities of overseas citizenship. As West African students turned increasingly to anti-colonial activism, French authorities finally committed to establishing a full university in Dakar. Paradoxically, the construction and consolidation of this French university took place during the period of active decolonization.

Microbiome ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Imane Allali ◽  
Regina E. Abotsi ◽  
Lemese Ah. Tow ◽  
Lehana Thabane ◽  
Heather J. Zar ◽  

Abstract Background The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is an emerging and important area of research; however, there is a concern that African populations are under-represented in human microbiome studies. We, therefore, conducted a systematic survey of African human microbiome studies to provide an overview and identify research gaps. Our secondary objectives were: (i) to determine the number of peer-reviewed publications; (ii) to identify the extent to which the researches focused on diseases identified by the World Health Organization [WHO] State of Health in the African Region Report as being the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in 2018; (iii) to describe the extent and pattern of collaborations between researchers in Africa and the rest of the world; and (iv) to identify leadership and funders of the studies. Methodology We systematically searched Medline via PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information through EBSCOhost, and Web of Science from inception through to 1st April 2020. We included studies that characterized samples from African populations using next-generation sequencing approaches. Two reviewers independently conducted the literature search, title and abstract, and full-text screening, as well as data extraction. Results We included 168 studies out of 5515 records retrieved. Most studies were published in PLoS One (13%; 22/168), and samples were collected from 33 of the 54 African countries. The country where most studies were conducted was South Africa (27/168), followed by Kenya (23/168) and Uganda (18/168). 26.8% (45/168) focused on diseases of significant public health concern in Africa. Collaboration between scientists from the United States of America and Africa was most common (96/168). The first and/or last authors of 79.8% of studies were not affiliated with institutions in Africa. Major funders were the United States of America National Institutes of Health (45.2%; 76/168), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (17.8%; 30/168), and the European Union (11.9%; 20/168). Conclusions There are significant gaps in microbiome research in Africa, especially those focusing on diseases of public health importance. There is a need for local leadership, capacity building, intra-continental collaboration, and national government investment in microbiome research within Africa.

Paul Munro

Colonial wildlife conservation initiatives in Africa emerged during the late 19th century, with the creation of different laws to restrict hunting as well as with the setting up of game reserves by colonial governments. Key influential figures behind this emergence were aristocratic European hunters who had a desire to preserve African game populations—ostensibly protecting them from settler and African populations—so that elite sports hunting could persevere on the continent. These wildlife conservation measures became more consolidated at the turn of the 20th century, notably due to the 1900 Convention for the Preservation of Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa—an agreement between European imperial powers and their colonial possessions in Africa to improve wildlife preservation measures—and with the establishment of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire in 1903. This Society, made up of aristocrats, hunter-naturalists, and former government officials, used the influence of its members to advocate for greater wildlife conservation measures in Africa. The wildlife preservation agenda of the Society was largely geared around restricting hunting praxis (and land access) for African populations, while elite European hunting was defended and promoted as an imperial privilege compatible with environmental outcomes. Starting in the 1920s, members from the Society played a key role in setting up Africa’s early national parks, establishing a key conservation praxis that would continue into the late colonial and postcolonial periods. After World War II, colonial wildlife conservation influence reached its zenith. African populations were displaced as national parks were established across the continent.

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