biochemical analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
Xiwei Fan ◽  
Xiaoxin Wu ◽  
Lucas Trevisan Franca De Lima ◽  
Samantha Stehbens ◽  
Chamindie Punyadeera ◽  

Steven G. Fagan ◽  
Sibylle Bechet ◽  
Kumlesh K. Dev

AbstractTherapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have largely focused on the regulation of amyloid pathology while those targeting tau pathology, and inflammatory mechanisms are less explored. In this regard, drugs with multimodal and concurrent targeting of Aβ, tau, and inflammatory processes may offer advantages. Here, we investigate one such candidate drug in the triple transgenic 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD, namely the disease-modifying oral neuroimmunomodulatory therapeutic used in patients with multiple sclerosis, called fingolimod. In this study, administration of fingolimod was initiated after behavioral symptoms are known to emerge, at 6 months of age. Treatment continued to 12 months when behavioral tests were performed and thereafter histological and biochemical analysis was conducted on postmortem tissue. The results demonstrate that fingolimod reverses deficits in spatial working memory at 8 and 12 months of age as measured by novel object location and Morris water maze tests. Inflammation in the brain is alleviated as demonstrated by reduced Iba1-positive and CD3-positive cell number, less ramified microglial morphology, and improved cytokine profile. Finally, treatment with fingolimod was shown to reduce phosphorylated tau and APP levels in the hippocampus and cortex. These results highlight the potential of fingolimod as a multimodal therapeutic for the treatment of AD.

Rebecca C. S. Edgar ◽  
Natalie A. Counihan ◽  
Sheena McGowan ◽  
Tania F. de Koning-Ward

Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a global health problem as parasites continue to develop resistance to all antimalarials in use. Infection causes clinical symptoms during the intra-erythrocytic stage of the lifecycle where the parasite infects and replicates within red blood cells (RBC). During this stage, P. falciparum digests the main constituent of the RBC, hemoglobin, in a specialized acidic compartment termed the digestive vacuole (DV), a process essential for survival. Many therapeutics in use target one or multiple aspects of the DV, with chloroquine and its derivatives, as well as artemisinin, having mechanisms of action within this organelle. In order to better understand how current therapeutics and those under development target DV processes, techniques used to investigate the DV are paramount. This review outlines the involvement of the DV in therapeutics currently in use and focuses on the range of techniques that are currently utilized to study this organelle including microscopy, biochemical analysis, genetic approaches and metabolomic studies. Importantly, continued development and application of these techniques will aid in our understanding of the DV and in the development of new therapeutics or therapeutic partners for the future.

Carlo Giovanni Quintanilla ◽  
Wan-Ru Lee ◽  
Jen Liou

Homeostatic regulation of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in receptor-stimulated cells is mediated by the lipid transfer protein Nir2. Nir2 is dynamically recruited to endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions to facilitate replenishment of PM PIP2 hydrolyzed during receptor-mediated signaling. However, our knowledge regarding the activation and sustainment of Nir2-mediated replenishment of PM PIP2 is limited. Here, we describe the functions of Nir1 as a positive regulator of Nir2 and PIP2 homeostasis. In contrast to the family proteins Nir2 and Nir3, Nir1 constitutively localizes at ER-PM junctions. Nir1 potentiates Nir2 targeting to ER-PM junctions during receptor-mediated signaling and is required for efficient PM PIP2 replenishment. Live-cell imaging and biochemical analysis reveal that Nir1 interacts with Nir2 via a region between the FFAT motif and the DDHD domain. Combined, results from this study identify Nir1 as an ER-PM junction localized protein that promotes Nir2 recruitment for PIP2 homeostasis.

2022 ◽  
Ibrahim Kecoglu ◽  
Merve Sirkeci ◽  
Ayse Sen ◽  
Mehmet Burcin Unlu ◽  
Ugur Parlatan ◽  

The salinity level of the growing medium has diverse effects on the development of plants, including both physical and biochemical changes. To determine the salt stress level of a plant endures, one can measure these structural and chemical changes. Raman spectroscopy and biochemical analysis are some of the most common techniques in the literature. Here, we present a combination of machine learning and Raman spectroscopy with which we can both find out the biochemical change that occurs while the medium salt concentration changes and predict the level of salt stress a wheat sample experiences accurately using our trained regression models. In addition, by applying different machine learning algorithms, we compare the level of success for different algorithms and determine the best method to use in this application. Production units can take actions based on the quantitative information they get from the trained machine learning models related to salt stress, which can potentially increase efficiency and avoid the loss of crops.

A. P. Nechiporenko ◽  
O. S. Vezo ◽  
U. Yu. Nechiporenko ◽  
L. V. Plotnikova ◽  
V. E. Sitnikova ◽  

115 samples of honey of various botanical types, geographical origin and harvest year (2019– 2021) were analysed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of impaired total reflection, refractometry and biochemical analysis. Initial honey samples in liquid and crystallised states were investigated. Crystalline D-glucopyranose (glucose), D-fructopyranose (fructose), their 40% solutions and invert sugar were used as auxiliary substances. Biochemical analysis was used to determine the glucose content in honey samples. Based on the obtained data, a relationship between the results of biochemical analysis and refractometry (refractive index, the content of invert sugars, humidity) was established. We deduced equations that allow the content of glucose and fructose in honey to be evaluated by the refractive index. Studying honey by IR spectroscopy showed that all investigated samples, regardless of the botanical and geographical origins, can be classified into three groups dominated by: I – glucose, II – fructose and III – mixed, with a close content of two monosaccharides. This allowed the bands characteristic of α- and β-pyranose forms of glucose and fructose to be identified, as well as the nature of their changes depending on the ratio of both monosaccharides in honey as a result of their crystallisation to be assessed. It is noted that the ratio of monosaccharides determines not only the stability of the liquid crystal structure and crystallisation rate in honey but also their optical, biochemical and nutritional properties, which are important for the preferred use of honey in medical and pharmacopoeial practice, dietetics and cosmetology.

Biomass ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Tania S. Mayala ◽  
Maryse D. Nkoua Ngavouka ◽  
Dick H. Douma ◽  
James M. Hammerton ◽  
Andrew B. Ross ◽  

This study assesses the bioenergy potential of two types of aquatic biomass found in the Republic of Congo: the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca (UL) and Ledermanniella schlechteri (LS). Their combustion behaviour was assessed using elemental and biochemical analysis, TGA, bomb calorimetry and metal analysis. Their anaerobic digestion behaviour was determined using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The average HHV for LS is 14.1 MJ kg−1, whereas UL is lower (10.5 MJ kg−1). Both biomasses have high ash contents and would be problematic during thermal conversion due to unfavourable ash behaviour. Biochemical analysis indicated high levels of carbohydrate and protein and low levels of lipids and lignin. Although the lipid profile is desirable for biodiesel production, the levels are too low for feasible extraction. High levels of carbohydrates and protein make both biomasses suitable for anaerobic digestion. BMP tests showed that LS and UL have an average of 262 and 161 mL CH4 gVS−1, respectively. The biodegradability (BI) of LS and UL had an average value of 76.5% and 43.5%, respectively. The analysis indicated that these aquatic biomasses are unsuitable for thermal conversion and lipid extraction; however, conversion through anaerobic digestion is promising.

EMJ Oncology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sajjad Ali Khan ◽  
M. Mustansir Mehdi Khan ◽  
Matiullah Kamin ◽  
Azra Rizwan

Background: Concurrent thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism is a rare finding. The frequency of this association is very variable. A rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism is described here. Case: A 49-year-old male presented to the authors’ outpatient clinic with complaints of a painless left-sided anterior neck swelling that had persisted for the past 8 months. He also reported weight loss for the same duration. The anterolateral swelling was non-tender, asymmetrical, mobile, and rubbery. Investigations: Biochemical analysis confirmed hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound examination of the neck showed a well-defined, solid, and cystic lesion in the left lobe and isthmus of thyroid gland. The solid portion had few specks of calcification. A radioactive thyroid scan showed increased tracer uptake in the left lobe. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin was discovered after fine-needle aspiration of the left anterior cervical lymph node. After preparation, a total thyroidectomy was done. Examination of histopathology confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Treatment: Following radioactive thyroid ablation, the patient was started on suppressive doses of thyroxine daily. Conclusion: Although thyroid cancer with hyperthyroidism is a rare finding, it should not be disregarded. To avoid missing this unusual yet uncommon discovery, a detailed history and physical examination should be performed, as well as all required investigations.

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