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This research proposes a tweaked scheme based on DNA fragment assembly to improve protection over insecure channel. The proposed procedure utilizes binary coding to change over an underlying plaintext into a reference DNA arrangement to deal with the fragmentation. DNA fragment key expansion is applied over the reference DNA sequence to make the short-chain fragments. The redundancy in the long-chain of reference DNA is removed using DNA fragment assembly. A look-up table is generated to store the binary values of overlapped fragments to be reassembled during the encryption and decryption processes to prevent artefacts. Also, it is used in an overlapped sequence to counteract cipher decomposition. The results and comparisons demonstrate that the proposed scheme can balance the three most important characteristics of any DNA masking scheme: payload, capacity, and BPN. Moreover, the potential for cracking the proposed tweaked method is more complex than the current strategies.

Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 122802
Xiao-Tong Wang ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  
Xi-Zhe Li ◽  
Wei Lin ◽  
Dong-An Li ◽  
Waxy Oil ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Palayakotai R. Raghavan

Increasing outbreaks of new pathogenic viruses have promoted the exploration of novel alternatives to time-consuming vaccines. Thus, it is necessary to develop a universal approach to halt the spread of new and unknown viruses as they are discovered. One such promising approach is to target lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between the virus envelope and the host cell plasma membrane as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nanolipid emulsion of long-chain alcohols, has been demonstrated as a strong candidate that inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce viral infectivity, including that of coronaviruses (such as SARS-CoV-2) by modifying their lipid-dependent attachment mechanism to human host cells. The receptor ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells, whereas the serine protease TMPRSS2 primes the viral S protein. In this study, Metadichol® was found to be 270 times more potent an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 ( E C 50 = 96   ng / mL ) than camostat mesylate ( E C 50 = 26000   ng / mL ). Additionally, it inhibits ACE with an EC50 of 71 ng/mL, but it is a very weak inhibitor of ACE2 at an EC50 of 31 μg/mL. Furthermore, the live viral assay performed in Caco-2 cells revealed that Metadichol® inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at an EC90 of 0.16 μg/mL. Moreover, Metadichol® had an EC90 of 0.00037 μM, making it 2081 and 3371 times more potent than remdesivir ( E C 50 = 0.77   μ M ) and chloroquine ( E C 50 = 1.14   μ M ), respectively.

Zahir Shah ◽  
Syed Lal Badshah ◽  
Arshad Iqbal ◽  
Zamarud Shah ◽  
Abdul-Hamid Emwas ◽  

Abstract Background Freshwater macroalgae possess a number of important secondary metabolites. They are an unexplored source of medicinal compounds. In this study, three freshwater macroalgae—Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata and Spirogyra crassa—were collected from the river Swat and the river Kabul in the Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To assess the role of freshwater macroalgae in agriculture, various experiments were performed on their extracts. Methanolic extract of the three macroalgae were first analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the presence of important medicinal secondary metabolites. The methanol based macroalgae extracts were tested for antibacterial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Results Initially, the algae were dried, crushed and treated with methanol for the extraction of secondary metabolites. The GC–MS results contained several important long chain fatty acids and other related long-chain hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes. Several benzene derivatives were also detected during the course of the investigation. Several of these compounds have established roles in the treatment of human ailments and can be supplied to farm animals. For example, phenylephrine is a decongestant, dilates pupils, increases blood pressure and helps in relieving hemorrhoids. Hexahydropseudoionone has uses in perfumes and other cosmetics. Several essential oils were also detected in the methanolic extract of the three macroalgae that can be utilized in various industrial products. Bioassays showed that these algal extracts—especially the Spirogyra sp. extract—contain moderate to maximum bioactivity. Conclusions Macroalgae possess important secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. These secondary metabolites can be used as biopesticides, plant growth enhancers, and remedies for various diseases in farm animals and for the control of weeds. They can be further explored for isolation and purification of useful biochemical compounds. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Michael Schmidt ◽  
Theresa Proctor ◽  
Rucheng Diao ◽  
Peter L. Freddolino

Thioesterases play a critical role in metabolism, membrane biosynthesis, and overall homeostasis for all domains of life. In this present study, we characterize a putative thioesterase from Escherichia coli MG1655 and define its role as a cytosolic enzyme. Building on structure-guided functional predictions, we show that YigI is a medium- to -long chain acyl-CoA thioesterase that is involved in the degradation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in vivo, showing overlapping specificity with two previously defined E. coli thioesterases TesB and FadM. We then bioinformatically identify the regulatory relationships that induce YigI expression, which include: an acidic environment, high oxygen availability, and exposure to aminoglycosides. Our findings define a role for YigI and shed light on why the E. coli genome harbors numerous thioesterases with closely related functions.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Marek Golian ◽  
Tanja Bien ◽  
Sebastian Schmelzle ◽  
Margy Alejandra Esparza-Mora ◽  
Dino Peter McMahon ◽  

Most of our knowledge on insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) stems from analytical techniques based on gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has its limits under standard conditions, particularly in detecting compounds beyond a chain length of around C40. Here, we compare the CHC chain length range detectable by GC-MS with the range assessed by silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (Ag-LDI-MS), a novel and rarely applied technique on insect CHCs, in seven species of the order Blattodea. For all tested species, we unveiled a considerable range of very long-chain CHCs up to C58, which are not detectable by standard GC-MS technology. This indicates that general studies on insect CHCs may frequently miss compounds in this range, and we encourage future studies to implement analytical techniques extending the conventionally accessed chain length range. Furthermore, we incorporate 3D scanned insect body surface areas as an additional factor for the comparative quantification of extracted CHC amounts between our study species. CHC quantity distributions differed considerably when adjusted for body surface areas as opposed to directly assessing extracted CHC amounts, suggesting that a more accurate evaluation of relative CHC quantities can be achieved by taking body surface areas into account.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Denise Wolrab ◽  
Robert Jirásko ◽  
Eva Cífková ◽  
Marcus Höring ◽  
Ding Mei ◽  

AbstractPancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis among all cancers. Cancer screening of body fluids may improve the survival time prognosis of patients, who are often diagnosed too late at an incurable stage. Several studies report the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in tumor cells, suggesting that changes in the blood lipidome may accompany tumor growth. Here we show that the comprehensive mass spectrometric determination of a wide range of serum lipids reveals statistically significant differences between pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls, as visualized by multivariate data analysis. Three phases of biomarker discovery research (discovery, qualification, and verification) are applied for 830 samples in total, which shows the dysregulation of some very long chain sphingomyelins, ceramides, and (lyso)phosphatidylcholines. The sensitivity and specificity to diagnose pancreatic cancer are over 90%, which outperforms CA 19-9, especially at an early stage, and is comparable to established diagnostic imaging methods. Furthermore, selected lipid species indicate a potential as prognostic biomarkers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Mariya Misheva ◽  
Konstantinos Kotzamanis ◽  
Luke C. Davies ◽  
Victoria J. Tyrrell ◽  
Patricia R. S. Rodrigues ◽  

AbstractOxylipins are potent biological mediators requiring strict control, but how they are removed en masse during infection and inflammation is unknown. Here we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dynamically enhances oxylipin removal via mitochondrial β-oxidation. Specifically, genetic or pharmacological targeting of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), a mitochondrial importer of fatty acids, reveal that many oxylipins are removed by this protein during inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Using stable isotope-tracing lipidomics, we find secretion-reuptake recycling for 12-HETE and its intermediate metabolites. Meanwhile, oxylipin β-oxidation is uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation, thus not contributing to energy generation. Testing for genetic control checkpoints, transcriptional interrogation of human neonatal sepsis finds upregulation of many genes involved in mitochondrial removal of long-chain fatty acyls, such as ACSL1,3,4, ACADVL, CPT1B, CPT2 and HADHB. Also, ACSL1/Acsl1 upregulation is consistently observed following the treatment of human/murine macrophages with LPS and IFN-γ. Last, dampening oxylipin levels by β-oxidation is suggested to impact on their regulation of leukocyte functions. In summary, we propose mitochondrial β-oxidation as a regulatory metabolic checkpoint for oxylipins during inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mohamed A. Elrayess ◽  
Farhan S. Cyprian ◽  
Abdallah M. Abdallah ◽  
Mohamed M. Emara ◽  
Ilhame Diboun ◽  

Introduction: Increased COVID-19 disease severity is higher among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. However, the metabolic pathways underlying this association are not fully characterized. This study aims to identify the metabolic signature associated with increased COVID-19 severity in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.Methods: One hundred and fifteen COVID-19 patients were divided based on disease severity, diabetes status, and hypertension status. Targeted metabolomics of serum samples from all patients was performed using tandem mass spectrometry followed by multivariate and univariate models.Results: Reduced levels of various triacylglycerols were observed with increased disease severity in the diabetic patients, including those containing palmitic (C16:0), docosapentaenoic (C22:5, DPA), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, DHA) acids (FDR < 0.01). Functional enrichment analysis revealed triacylglycerols as the pathway exhibiting the most significant changes in severe COVID-19 in diabetic patients (FDR = 7.1 × 10−27). Similarly, reduced levels of various triacylglycerols were also observed in hypertensive patients corresponding with increased disease severity, including those containing palmitic, oleic (C18:1), and docosahexaenoic acids. Functional enrichment analysis revealed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6) as the pathway exhibiting the most significant changes with increased disease severity in hypertensive patients (FDR = 0.07).Conclusions: Reduced levels of triacylglycerols containing specific long-chain unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with increased COVID-19 severity in diabetic and hypertensive patients, offering potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

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