Healthy Aging
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chanam Lee ◽  
Xuemei Zhu ◽  
Anna Patricia Lane ◽  
Erja Portegijs

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. 1040
Author(s):  
Dolors Puigoriol-Illamola ◽  
Júlia Companys-Alemany ◽  
Kris McGuire ◽  
Natalie Z. M. Homer ◽  
Rosana Leiva ◽  
...  

Impaired glucocorticoid (GC) signaling is a significant factor in aging, stress, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, the study of GC-mediated stress responses to chronic moderately stressful situations, which occur in daily life, is of huge interest for the design of pharmacological strategies toward the prevention of neurodegeneration. To address this issue, SAMP8 mice were exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm for 4 weeks and treated with RL-118, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitor. The inhibition of this enzyme is linked with a reduction in GC levels and cognitive improvement, while CMS exposure has been associated with reduced cognitive performance. The aim of this project was to assess whether RL-118 treatment could reverse the deleterious effects of CMS on cognition and behavioral abilities and to evaluate the molecular mechanisms that compromise healthy aging in SAMP8 mice. First, we confirmed the target engagement between RL-118 and 11β-HSD1. Additionally, we showed that DNA methylation, hydroxymethylation, and histone phosphorylation were decreased by CMS induction, and increased by RL-118 treatment. In addition, CMS exposure caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage and increased pro-oxidant enzymes—as well as pro-inflammatory mediators—through the NF-κB pathway and astrogliosis markers, such as GFAP. Of note, these modifications were reversed by 11β-HSD1 inhibition. Remarkably, although CMS altered mTORC1 signaling, autophagy was increased in the SAMP8 RL-118-treated mice. We also showed an increase in amyloidogenic processes and a decrease in synaptic plasticity and neuronal remodeling markers in mice under CMS, which were consequently modified by RL-118 treatment. In conclusion, 11β-HSD1 inhibition through RL-118 ameliorated the detrimental effects induced by CMS, including epigenetic and cognitive disturbances, indicating that GC-excess attenuation shows potential as a therapeutic strategy for age-related cognitive decline and AD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chia-Chia Lee ◽  
Yi-Chu Liao ◽  
Mon-Chien Lee ◽  
Kun-Ju Lin ◽  
Han-Yin Hsu ◽  
...  

In humans, aging is characterized by the progressive decline in biological, physiological, and psychological functions, and is a major risk factor in the development of chronic diseases. Therefore, the development of strategies aimed at attenuating aging-related disorders and promoting healthy aging is critical. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 (TWK10), a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese pickled cabbage, improved muscle strength, exercise endurance, and overall body composition in healthy humans. In this study, the effect of TWK10 on the progression of age-related impairments was investigated in mice. We found that TWK10 not only enhanced muscle strength in young mice, but also prevented the aging-related loss of muscle strength in aged mice, which was accompanied by elevated muscle glycogen levels. Furthermore, TWK10 attenuated the aging-associated decline in learning and memory abilities, as well as bone mass. Further analyses of gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the pattern of gut microbial composition was clearly altered following 8 weeks of TWK10 administration. TWK10-treated mice also experienced an increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria and higher overall levels of gut SCFA. Furthermore, TWK10 administration to some extent reversed the aging-associated accumulation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. In conclusion, TWK10 could be viewed as a potential therapeutic agent that attenuates aging-related disorders and provides health benefits by modulating the imbalance of gut microbiota.


GeroScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chatrawee Duangjan ◽  
Sean P. Curran

AbstractTea polyphenols are widely considered as excellent antioxidant agents which can contribute to human health and longevity. However, the identification of the active biomolecules in complex tea extracts that promote health and longevity are not fully known. Here we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the health benefits and longevity effects of Camellia sinensis oolong tea extracts (QFT, NFT, and CFT) and oolonghomobisflavan A and oolonghomobisflavan B, which are present in oolong tea extracts. Our results showed that oolong tea extracts and oolonghomobisflavans prolong lifespan and improved healthspan by curtailing the age-related decline in muscle activity and the accumulation of age pigment (lipofuscin). We found that the lifespan and healthspan promoting effects of oolong tea extracts and oolonghomobisflavans were positively correlated with the stress resistance via DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Furthermore, oolong tea extracts and oolonghomobisflavans displayed protective effects against Aβ- and polyQ-induced neuro/proteotoxicity. Overall, our study provides new evidence to support the health benefits of oolong tea and importantly identify oolonghomobisflavans as potent bioactive molecules that promote health when supplemented with a normal diet. As such, oolonghomobisflavans represent a valuable new class of compounds that promote healthy aging.


Author(s):  
Giuseppina Elena Cipriani ◽  
Massimo Bartoli ◽  
Martina Amanzio

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, characterized by home confinement and other restrictive measures to reduce the spread of the infection, led to significant changes in people's habits and lifestyle. One of the most common problems is the worsening of sleep quality or quantity, which could have negative effects on psychological wellbeing, particularly in older adults. The purposes of the present literature review considering healthy aging subjects are (a) to examine the existing research on sleep alterations during the current pandemic and (b) to highlight possible relationships between sleep problems and psychological distress. A systematic search strategy was implemented according to PRISMA guidelines in the international literature online databases, up to 1 July 2021. After identification and screening phases, 11 articles were included in this review. The studies found possible associations between sleep problems and mood changes—particularly in terms of depression and anxiety. In addition, altered sleep patterns seemed to be related to changes in individual aspects, lifestyle, and attitudes adopted by older adults during the COVID-19 lockdown. Thus, the pandemic could affect the sleep and psychological wellbeing of the older population, even in healthy aging.


Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 695
Author(s):  
Andrea Cabbia ◽  
Peter A. J. Hilbers ◽  
Natal A. W. van Riel

Metabolic flexibility is the ability of an organism to adapt its energy source based on nutrient availability and energy requirements. In humans, this ability has been linked to cardio-metabolic health and healthy aging. Genome-scale metabolic models have been employed to simulate metabolic flexibility by computing the Respiratory Quotient (RQ), which is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed, and varies between values of 0.7 for pure fat metabolism and 1.0 for pure carbohydrate metabolism. While the nutritional determinants of metabolic flexibility are known, the role of low energy expenditure and sedentary behavior in the development of metabolic inflexibility is less studied. In this study, we present a new description of metabolic flexibility in genome-scale metabolic models which accounts for energy expenditure, and we study the interactions between physical activity and nutrition in a set of patient-derived models of skeletal muscle metabolism in older adults. The simulations show that fuel choice is sensitive to ATP consumption rate in all models tested. The ability to adapt fuel utilization to energy demands is an intrinsic property of the metabolic network.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Birgit Weinberger

AbstractPreserving good health in old age is of utmost importance to alleviate societal, economic and health care-related challenges caused by an aging society. The prevalence and severity of many infectious diseases is higher in older adults, and in addition to the acute disease, long-term sequelae, such as exacerbation of underlying chronic disease, onset of frailty or increased long-term care dependency, are frequent. Prevention of infections e.g. by vaccination is therefore an important measure to ensure healthy aging and preserve quality of life. Several vaccines are specifically recommended for older adults in many countries, and in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic older adults were among the first target groups for vaccination due to their high risk for severe disease. This review highlights clinical data on the influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and herpes zoster vaccines, summarizes recent developments to improve vaccine efficacy, such as the use of adjuvants or higher antigen dose for influenza, and gives an overview of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development for older adults. Substantial research is ongoing to further improve vaccines, e.g. by developing universal influenza and pneumococcal vaccines to overcome the limitations of the current strain-specific vaccines, and to develop novel vaccines against pathogens, which cause considerable morbidity and mortality in older adults, but for which no vaccines are currently available. In addition, we need to improve uptake of the existing vaccines and increase awareness for life-long vaccination in order to provide optimal protection for the vulnerable older age group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Kopp ◽  
Martin Burtscher

AbstractAlthough even small volumes (15–20 min) of daily physical activity (PA) are associated with health benefits, the optimal volume for healthy aging and longevity is substantially larger, amounting to about 100 min of daily moderate PA. The accomplishment of this objective likely requires the development of an appropriate PA lifestyle at an early age. Research initiatives are necessary addressing the motivational contribution of families, school surroundings and sport clubs, perhaps combined with role model effects and instructions for the specific implementation. Such approaches would need an enlarged agreement in readdressing this new aim followed by the launch of a new research strategy in order to develop specific offers for the respective age cohorts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1331
Author(s):  
Mei-Ling Chen ◽  
Chun-Hsiang Tan ◽  
Hui-Chen Su ◽  
Pi-Shan Sung ◽  
Chia-Yi Chien ◽  
...  

This study aimed to understand the impact of sex on the neurocognitive function of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ninety-four participants with idiopathic PD and 167 age-matched healthy individuals as normal controls (NCs) were recruited and underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessments. Sex differences were found in NCs, but not in patients with PD. Among male participants, patients with PD showed worse performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) (p < 0.001) test and Symbol Search (SS) (p < 0.001) than NCs. Among female participants, patients with PD showed worse performance on the category score of the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (p < 0.001), SS (p < 0.001), and pentagon copying (p < 0.001) than NCs. After controlling for the effects of age and years of education, Hoehn and Yahr stage was found to predict the performance of the Color Trails Test part A (βA = 0.241, pA = 0.036), Stroop Color and Word Test (β = −0.245, p = 0.036), and DSS (β = −0.258, p = 0.035) in men with PD. These results indicate the differential effect of sex on the neurocognitive function among healthy aging and PD populations. The disappearance of sex differences, which is present in healthy aging, in patients with PD suggests a gradual loss of the neuroprotective effect of estrogen after the initiation of the neurodegenerative process. This study also found mental flexibility and visuospatial function to be the susceptible cognitive domains in women with PD, while the disease severity could predict the working memory and processing speed in men with PD.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sam S. Webb ◽  
Margaret Jane Moore ◽  
Anna Yamshchikova ◽  
Valeska Kozik ◽  
Mihaela D. Duta ◽  
...  

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