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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 385
Pietro De Rossi ◽  
Italo Pretelli ◽  
Deny Menghini ◽  
Barbara D’Aiello ◽  
Silvia Di Vara ◽  

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in school-age children, and it is usually associated with a significant impairment in global functioning. Traditionally, boys with ADHD are more likely to be referred for clinical assessments due to a higher prevalence of externalizing symptoms. However, as regards gender-related differential clinical characteristics between boys and girls with ADHD, further investigation is warranted in light of conflicting results found in currently available literature. In fact, a more precise clinical characterization could help increase appropriate diagnoses and treatment planning. In this context, we carried out a retrospective observational study on 715 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD from 2018 to 2020 at our center, in order to describe their gender-related clinical characteristics. Boys displayed higher average IQs, but they were comparable to girls in functional impairments and adaptive skills. Girls displayed higher scores on the Attention Problems subscale of the CBCL 6–18 and on several CPRS-R:L subscales, suggesting higher general ADHD symptom severity. Boys showed higher scores on CBCL 6–18 subscales, such as withdrawn/depressed, internalizing, and obsessive-compulsive problems. In conclusion, girls showed more severe ADHD features and lower IQ in clinically referred settings, while boys showed more internalizing problems and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Hyegyeong Cha ◽  
Sisook Kim ◽  
Yedong Son

Early detection is important for delaying or preventing cognitive impairment. Since olfactory dysfunction and depression are common symptoms of cognitive dysfunction, they may serve as measurable risk indicators. This study was designed to identify the relationship between olfaction, depression, and each domain of cognitive function in elderly dementia patients in South Korea. Study participants were 108 patients who visited the outpatient clinic between March and September 2019. More significant impairment of olfactory function was found in those with mild (7.48 ± 1.28) or moderate (7.37 ± 2.22) test scores of the Expanded Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale than in those with questionable scores (20.58 ± 6.18). The language domain of cognitive function, age, and education level showed 39.2% explanatory power for olfactory function (F = 5.591, p < 0.001). It is expected that assessment of olfactory function in elderly people can lead to the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of dementia. Furthermore, it is important for future studies to confirm the relationship between each domain of cognitive function and olfactory function according to the type of dementia and to establish criteria for screening dementia in order to utilize olfactory function as a clinical marker.

Shehu K ◽  
Badamosi Im ◽  
Saleh MS

Background: Developmental Neurotoxicity can lead to the buildup of reactive oxygen species which is an indicator to oxidative stress in the prenatally exposed offspring. Neuronal oxidative stress induces neuroinflammation, precedes tangle formation, and disrupts synaptic plasticity. The result of such changes may be expressed into adulthood as behavioral deficits. All together, these mechanisms are implicated in memory disorders. Objectives: To investigate the histochemical changes in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of Wistar rats' offspring after prenatal exposure to mosquito coil smoke and its effect on memory. . Methods: 12 pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four, 3 animals per group. Group I was exposed to fresh air. Groups II, III, and IV were exposed to mosquito coil smoke for 4, 6 and 8 hours daily respectively throughout gestation period. On Post-natal day (PND) 28 and 29, shortterm spatial and recognition memory of adolescent wistar rats were assessed using water licking task and novel object recognition test respectively. For each animal group (I-IV), a total of 8 animals were randomly selected from the litters for neurobehavioral studies. Experimental animals were humanely sacrificed and sections from the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex were processed for histochemical studies using Bielschowsky stain. Data were presented as mean ± SEM; analysed using One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (p<0.05). Results and Conclusion: Our results showed significant impairment in short-term recognition and spatial memory of group III and IV adolescent wistar rats when compared with the control (p<0.05) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangle-like structures in neurons of the studied regions. .

2021 ◽  
Vol 93 (4) ◽  
pp. 465-467
Bahare Rafiee ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Bagher Tabei

Male infertility is an important factor accounting for 40-50% of infertility cases that may be due to disturbance in one of the parameters as concentration, motility and morphology observed in one or two semen analysis with an interval of 1 and 4 weeks. COVID-19 may affect male fertility through virus division, cytotoxic effects on testicular tissue and immunopathological effect. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) improved sperm concentration and acrosome reaction while reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of sperm DNA. This interventional study was conducted on 200 men who were referred to private infertility clinics for female factor (their previous semen analysis was normal) and got COVID-19 infection in the last 3 months showing an impairment of the latest semen analysis due to COVID. Men were placed in two groups of control (n = 100) and intervention (NAC consumption). Subjects who got COVID-19 infection had a significant impairment of sperm quality (sperm concentration, sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology) compared to their semen analysis evaluated before the COVID-19 infection. NAC consumption significantly improved sperm total motility, sperm morphology and sperm concentration. COVID-19 infection has a negative effect on sperm parameters. NAC supplementation may have positive effect on sperm parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
André Do ◽  
Kamyar Keramatian ◽  
Ayal Schaffer ◽  
Lakshmi Yatham

Bipolar disorder (BD) is chronic psychiatric disorder associated with significant impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Although current pharmacological treatments for BD have improved its clinical management, many patients do not achieve remission, particularly those suffering from bipolar depression. In addition, available treatments are associated with a myriad of potential adverse effects, which highlights the need for novel therapeutic agents that can be effective for both phases of the illness with a reduced side effect burden. Cariprazine is a novel antipsychotic that is a dopamine D2/D3 partial agonist with a preference for D3 receptors. In this review, we examine the pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability profile of cariprazine in patients with BD, taking into account the latest clinical trials data. We also review post hoc analyses addressing clinically relevant subgroups and symptom domains in BD. Current evidence suggests efficacy for cariprazine 3–12 mg/day in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes; for bipolar depression, the efficacy of cariprazine appears to be dose-related, with doses of 1.5–3 mg/day beneficial as monotherapy. Cariprazine is overall well-tolerated by patients in both manic and depressive episodes. Its most common side effects relative to placebo include akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms and nausea. There are no metabolic concerns reported with cariprazine use. In summary, the latest evidence suggests that cariprazine is an effective and safe treatment option for BD.

Psychologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-42
Daniel Alfredo Landinez ◽  
Anyerson Stiths Gómez Tabares ◽  
Nora Helena Londoño Arredondo

Introduction: Individuals with personality pathology exhibit significant impairment in intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning that compromise psychological welfare of significant others. However, common pathological personality traits in college students remain unclear. Goal: This study aimed to describe pathological personality traits identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5) Section III alternative model of personality disorder in college students. Methodology: This is a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. Participants were 81 college students from a Colombian University who were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Results: Findings suggest that women scored significantly higher than men on hostility (z=-2.577; p=0.01; n2= 0.082). A medium size effect was found (p> 0.039) through the h2 index. The remaining variables did not prove statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Discussion: The personality domain that reached the most dysfunctionality was disinhibition (risk taking, impulsivity, rigid perfectionism). Negative affect had the highest mean score and gender differences in facets and domains showed that women scored significantly higher than men on hostility.      

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Edwin Leong ◽  
Zheng Pang ◽  
Andrew W. Stadnyk ◽  
Tong-Jun Lin

Mast cells (MCs) are key mediators of allergic inflammation through the activation of cross-linked immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcϵRI) on the cell surface, leading to the release of biologically potent mediators, either from preformed granules or newly synthesized. Pharmacological inhibitors have been developed to target a key signaling protein phosphatase in this pathway, calcineurin, yet there is a lack of genetic and definitive evidence for the various isoforms of calcineurin subunits in FcϵRI-mediated responses. In this study, we hypothesized that deficiency in the calcineurin Aα isoform will result in a decreased allergic immune response by the MCs. In a model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, there was a reduction in vascular permeability in MC-deficient mouse tissues reconstituted with calcineurin subunit A (CnAα) gene-knockout (<i>CnAα</i><sup>−/−</sup>) MCs, and in vitro experiments identified a significant reduction in release of preformed mediators from granules. Furthermore, released levels of de novo synthesized cytokines were reduced upon FcϵRI activation of <i>CnAα</i><sup>−/−</sup> MCs in vitro. Characterizing the mechanisms associated with this deficit response, we found a significant impairment of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cell phosphorylation and impaired nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell inhibitor alpha (NF-κB) activation. Thus, we concluded that <i>CnAα</i> contributes to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators from FcϵRI-mediated activation of MCs, and this regulation includes NF-κB signaling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Mahadev Dhami ◽  
Khadga Raj ◽  
Shamsher Singh

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive functions caused by oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, change in neuro- transmitter levels, and excessive deposition of Aβ(1–42) plaques. Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective actions. Objective: In the present study, fucoxanthin was employed as a protective strategy in Intracere- broventricular Streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced experimental model of cognitive impairment. Methods: STZ was injected twice ICV (3 mg/kg) on alternate days 1 and 3, and Wistar rats were evaluated for the memory analysis using Morris water maze and elevated plus-maze. Fucoxanthin at low 50 mg/kg, p.o. and high dose 100 mg/kg, p.o. was administered for 14 days. All animals were sacrificed on day 29, and brain hippocampus tissue after isolation was used for biochemical (MDA, nitrite, GSH, SOD and Catalase), neuroinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), neurotrans- mitters (ACh, GABA Glutamate), Aβ(1–42) and Tau protein measurements. Results: STZ-infused rats showed significant impairment in learning and memory, increased oxida- tive stress (MDA, nitrite), reduced antioxidant defense (GSH, SOD and Catalase), promoted cy- tokine release, and change in neurotransmitter levels. However, fucoxanthin improved cognitive functions, restored antioxidant levels, reduced inflammatory markers dose-dependently, and res- tored neurotransmitters concentration. Conclusion: The finding of the current study suggests that fucoxanthin could be the promising compound for improving cognitive functions through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuropro- tective mechanisms, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities, Aβ(1–42) accu- mulation, and tau protein.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Ilaria Rocco ◽  
Barbara Corso ◽  
Maurizio Bonati ◽  
Nadia Minicuci

Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Symptoms related to this disorder cause a significant impairment in school tasks and in the activities of children’s daily lives; an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment could almost certainly help improve their outcomes. The current study, part of the Models Of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) project, aims to explore the age at which children experience the onset or diagnosis of ADHD in European countries. Methods A systematic review was done examining the studies reporting the age of onset/diagnosis (AO/AD) of ADHD in European countries (28 European Member States plus 2 European Economic Area countries), published between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2019. Of the 2276 identified studies, 44 met all the predefined criteria and were included in the review. Results The lowest mean AO in the children diagnosed with ADHD alone was 2.25 years and the highest was 7.5 years. It was 15.3 years in the children with ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorder. The mean AD ranges between 6.2 and 18.1 years. Conclusions Our findings indicate that there is a wide variability in both the AO and AD of ADHD, and a too large distance between AO and AD. Since studies in the literature suggest that an early identification of ADHD symptoms may facilitate early referral and treatment, it would be important to understand the underlying reasons behind the wide variability found. Trial registration PROSPERO registration: CRD42017070631.

2021 ◽  
Dominic J Corkill ◽  
Alan N Hunt ◽  
Mary Jane Hinrichs ◽  
Nicholas White ◽  
Marlon Rebelatto ◽  

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key participant in, and a clinical target for, the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA).  Therapeutic inhibition of GM-CSF signalling using monoclonal antibodies to the α-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor (GMCSFRα) has shown clear benefit in patients with RA, giant cell arteritis (GCA)  and some efficacy in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.  However, GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare lung disease characterised by alveolar macrophage (AM) dysfunction and the accumulation of surfactant lipids.  We assessed how the anti-GMCSFRα approach might impact surfactant turnover in the airway.  Female C57Bl/6J mice received a mouse-GMCSFRα blocking antibody (CAM-3003) twice per week for up to 24 weeks. A parallel, comparator cohort of the mouse PAP model, GMCSFRβ knock-out (KO), was maintained up to 16 weeks.  We assessed lung tissue histopathology alongside lung phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism using stable isotope lipidomics.  GMCSFRβ KO mice reproduced the histopathological and biochemical features of PAP, accumulating surfactant PC in both broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lavaged lung tissue.  The incorporation pattern of methyl-D9-choline showed impaired catabolism and not enhanced synthesis.  In contrast, chronic supra-pharmacological CAM-3003 exposure (100mg/kg) over 24 weeks did not elicit a histopathological PAP phenotype despite some changes in lung PC catabolism.  Lack of significant impairment of AM catabolic function supports clinical observations that therapeutic antibodies to this pathway have not been associated with PAP in clinical trials.

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