network flows
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Vanya Ivanova ◽  
Tasho Tashev ◽  
Ivo Draganov

In this paper an optimized feedforward neural network model is proposed for detection of IoT based DDoS attacks by network traffic analysis aimed towards a specific target which could be constantly monitored by a tap. The proposed model is applicable for DoS and DDoS attacks which consist of TCP, UDP and HTTP flood and also against keylogging, data exfiltration, OS fingerprint and service scan activities. It simply differentiates such kind of network traffic from normal network flows. The neural network uses Adam optimization as a solver and the hyperbolic tangent activation function in all neurons from a single hidden layer. The number of hidden neurons could be varied, depending on targeted accuracy and processing speed. Testing over the Bot IoT dataset reveals that developed models are applicable using 8 or 10 features and achieved discrimination error of 4.91.10-3%.

José Correa ◽  
Andrés Cristi ◽  
Tim Oosterwijk

Dynamic network flows, or network flows over time, constitute an important model for real-world situations in which steady states are unusual, such as urban traffic and the internet. These applications immediately raise the issue of analyzing dynamic network flows from a game-theoretic perspective. In this paper, we study dynamic equilibria in the deterministic fluid queuing model in single-source, single-sink networks—arguably the most basic model for flows over time. In the last decade, we have witnessed significant developments in the theoretical understanding of the model. However, several fundamental questions remain open. One of the most prominent ones concerns the price of anarchy, measured as the worst-case ratio between the minimum time required to route a given amount of flow from the source to the sink and the time a dynamic equilibrium takes to perform the same task. Our main result states that, if we could reduce the inflow of the network in a dynamic equilibrium, then the price of anarchy is bounded by a factor, parameterized by the longest path length that converges to [Formula: see text], and this is tight. This significantly extends a result by Bhaskar et al. (SODA 2011). Furthermore, our methods allow us to determine that the price of anarchy in parallel-link and parallel-path networks is exactly 4/3. Finally, we argue that, if a certain, very natural, monotonicity conjecture holds, the price of anarchy in the general case is exactly [Formula: see text].

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2711
Jędrzej Bieniasz ◽  
Krzysztof Szczypiorski

This paper presents a new approach to generate datasets for cyber threat research in a multi-node system. For this purpose, the proof-of-concept of such a system is implemented. The system will be used to collect unique datasets with examples of information hiding techniques. These techniques are not present in publicly available cyber threat detection datasets, while the cyber threats that use them represent an emerging cyber defense challenge worldwide. The network data were collected thanks to the development of a dedicated application that automatically generates random network configurations and runs scenarios of information hiding techniques. The generated datasets were used in the data-driven research workflow for cyber threat detection, including the generation of data representations (network flows), feature selection based on correlations, data augmentation of training datasets, and preparation of machine learning classifiers based on Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptron architectures. The presented results show the usefulness and correctness of the design process to detect information hiding techniques. The challenges and research directions to detect cyber deception methods are discussed in general in the paper.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4 (113)) ◽  
pp. 12-19
Tansaule Serikov ◽  
Ainur Zhetpisbayeva ◽  
Sharafat Mirzakulova ◽  
Kairatbek Zhetpisbayev ◽  
Zhanar Ibrayeva ◽  

Time series data analysis and forecasting tool for studying the data on the use of network traffic is very important to provide acceptable and good quality network services, including network monitoring, resource management, and threat detection. More and more, the behavior of network traffic is described by the theory of deterministic chaos. The traffic of a modern network has a complex structure, an uneven rate of packet arrival for service by network devices. Predicting network traffic is still an important task, as forecast data provide the necessary information to solve the problem of managing network flows. Numerous studies of actually measured data confirm that they are nonstationary and their structure is multicomponent. This paper presents modeling using Nonlinear Autoregression Exogenous (NARX) algorithm for predicting network traffic datasets. NARX is one of the models that can be used to demonstrate non-linear systems, especially in modeling time series datasets. In other words, they called the categories of dynamic feedback networks covering several layers of the network. An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed, trained and tested using the LM learning algorithm (Levenberg-Macwardt). The initial data for the prediction is the actual measured network traffic of the packet rate. As a result of the study of the initial data, the best value of the smallest mean-square error MSE (Mean Squared Error) was obtained with the epoch value equal to 18. As for the regression R, its output ANN values in relation to the target for training, validation and testing were 0.97743. 0.9638 and 0.94907, respectively, with an overall regression value of 0.97134, which ensures that all datasets match exactly. Experimental results (MSE, R) have proven the method's ability to accurately estimate and predict network traffic

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Meilin Liu ◽  
Songjie Wei ◽  
Pengfei Jiang

The popularity of smart phones has brought significant convenience to people’s lives, but also there are many security problems. In recent years, malicious applications are increasingly rampant, which threaten users and society as security challenges to network reliability and management. However, due to neglecting the sequential features between network flows, existing malicious application recognition methods based on network traffic analysis have low recognition accuracy. Based on the network traffic characteristics of Android applications, this paper firstly applies Long Short-Term Memory network-based variational Auto-Encoder to extract the sequential feature of the application running time. Then, we design the BP neural network for initial classification and connect the class vector output of the BP neural network with the original data. The output is fed into the cascade forest for further feature learning and classification. The integrated methods are easy to implement with data independency and efficiency. We conduct experiments to evaluate the proposed with Android malware dataset CICAndMal2017, with a 97.29% high accuracy, comparatively significant precision and recall rates when benchmarked against other methods.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 2500
Vinhquoc Ta ◽  
Minho Park

Cloud computing is one of the most modernized technology for the modern world. Along with the developments in the cloud infrastructure comes the risk of attacks that exploit the cloud services to exhaust the usage-based resources. A new type of general denial attack, called “economic denial of sustainability” (EDoS), exploits the pay-per-use service to scale-up resource usage normally and gradually over time, finally bankrupting a service provider. The stealthiness of EDoS has made it challenging to detect by most traditional mechanisms for the detection of denial-of-service attacks. Although some recent research has shown that multivariate time recurrent models, such as recurrent neural networks (RNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM), are effective for EDoS detection, they have some limitations, such as a long processing time and information loss. Therefore, an efficient EDoS detection scheme is proposed, which utilizes an attention technique. The proposed attention technique mimics cognitive attention, which enhances the critical features of the input data and fades out the rest. This reduces the feature selection processing time by calculating the query, key and value scores for the network packets. During the EDoS attack, the values of network features change over time. The proposed scheme inspects the changes of the attention scores between packets and between features, which can help the classification modules distinguish the attack flows from network flows. On another hand, our proposal scheme speeds up the processing time for the detection system in the cloud. This advantage benefits the detection process, but the risk of the EDoS is serious as long as the detection time is delayed. Comprehensive experiments showed that the proposed scheme can enhance the detection accuracy by 98%, and the computational speed is 60% faster compared to previous techniques on the available datasets, such as KDD, CICIDS, and a dataset that emerged from the testbed. Our proposed work is not only beneficial to the detection system in cloud computing, but can also be enlarged to be better with higher quality of training and technologies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 9780
Recep Ulucak ◽  
Ramazan Sari ◽  
Seyfettin Erdogan ◽  
Rui Alexandre Castanho

Energy plays a critical role in building a sustainable future—economically, socially, and environmentally. Energy poverty holds a similarly prominent position and covers certain economic, social and environmental issues that are underlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Due to its multidimensional role in plans for achieving sustainable development, there is a growing body of literature focusing on various aspects of energy poverty. This study conducts a bibliometric analysis of this literature by utilizing more extensive data from the Web of Science, covering all information on energy poverty studies. The analysis reveals how energy poverty has attracted attention over time, who the leading authors are, which studies constitute outstanding contributions to the literature, which different sides of the research topic stand out, and also highlights the potential research gaps. The results reveal all the network flows among researchers, publications, journals, keywords, organizations, co-cited publications, and bibliographic coupling for energy poverty studies. The findings confirm the increasing popularity of energy poverty as a topic and demonstrate the increasing awareness of the issue in academia over time.

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