calcium influx
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Jinfeng Liu ◽  
Larry Baum ◽  
Shasha Yu ◽  
Youhong Lin ◽  
Guoying Xiong ◽  

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid β deposition-induced hippocampal synaptic dysfunction generally begins prior to neuronal degeneration and memory impairment. Lycium barbarum extracts (LBE) have been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in various animal models of neurodegeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of LBE on the synapse loss in AD through the avenue of the retina in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). We fed 3xTg-AD mice with low (200 mg/kg) or high (2 g/kg) dose hydrophilic LBE daily for 2 months from the starting age of 4- or 6-month-old. For those started at 6 month age, at 1 month (though not 2 months) after starting treatment, mice given high dose LBE showed a significant increase of a wave and b wave in scotopic ERG. After 2 months of treatment with high dose LBE, calpain-2, calpain-5, and the oxidative RNA marker 8-OHG were downregulated, and presynaptic densities in the inner plexiform layer but not the outer plexiform layer of the retina were significantly increased, suggesting the presynaptic structure of retina was preserved. Our results indicate that LBE feeding may preserve synapse stability in the retina of 3xTg-AD mice, probably by decreasing both oxidative stress and intracellular calcium influx. Thus, LBE might have potential as a neuroprotectant for AD through synapse preservation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 221 (2) ◽  
Ahmet Höke

Activation of the NAD hydrolase domain of Sarm1 mediates axonal degeneration caused by chemotherapy drugs, but the downstream events are unknown. In this issue, Li and colleagues (2021. J. Cell Biol. demonstrate that cADPR, a breakdown product of NAD, mediates paclitaxel-induced axonal degeneration by promoting influx of calcium into the axons.

2022 ◽  
Andrew Tyler Landau ◽  
Pojeong Park ◽  
David Wong-Campos ◽  
Tian He ◽  
Adam Ezra Cohen ◽  

Back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) regulate synaptic plasticity by evoking voltage-dependent calcium influx throughout dendrites. Attenuation of bAP amplitude in distal dendritic compartments alters plasticity in a location-specific manner by reducing bAP-dependent calcium influx. However, it is not known if neurons exhibit branch-specific variability in bAP-dependent calcium signals, independent of distance-dependent attenuation. Here, we reveal that bAPs fail to evoke calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in a specific population of dendritic branches in cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal cells, despite evoking substantial VGCC-mediated calcium influx in sister branches. These branches contain VGCCs and successfully propagate bAPs in the absence of synaptic input; nevertheless, they fail to exhibit bAP-evoked calcium influx due to a branch-specific reduction in bAP amplitude. We demonstrate that these branches have more elaborate branch structure compared to sister branches, which causes a local reduction in electrotonic impedance and bAP amplitude. Finally, we show that bAPs still amplify synaptically-mediated calcium influx in these branches because of differences in the voltage-dependence and kinetics of VGCCs and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Branch-specific compartmentalization of bAP-dependent calcium signals may provide a mechanism for neurons to diversify synaptic tuning across the dendritic tree.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sebastián Castillo-Galán ◽  
Daniela Parrau ◽  
Ismael Hernández ◽  
Sebastián Quezada ◽  
Marcela Díaz ◽  

Calcium signaling is key for the contraction, differentiation, and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, calcium influx through store-operated channels (SOCs) is particularly important in the vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia. Previously, we found a decrease in pulmonary hypertension and remodeling in normoxic newborn lambs partially gestated under chronic hypoxia, when treated with 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borinate (2-APB), a non-specific SOC blocker. However, the effects of 2-APB are unknown in neonates completely gestated, born, and raised under environmental hypoxia. Accordingly, we studied the effects of 2-APB-treatment on the cardiopulmonary variables in lambs under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Experiments were done in nine newborn lambs gestated, born, and raised in high altitude (3,600 m): five animals were treated with 2-APB [intravenous (i.v.) 10 mg kg–1] for 10 days, while other four animals received vehicle. During the treatment, cardiopulmonary variables were measured daily, and these were also evaluated during an acute episode of superimposed hypoxia, 1 day after the end of the treatment. Furthermore, pulmonary vascular remodeling was assessed by histological analysis 2 days after the end of the treatment. Basal cardiac output and mean systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and resistance from 2-APB- and vehicle-treated lambs did not differ along with the treatment. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) decreased after the first day of 2-APB treatment and remained lower than the vehicle-treated group until the third day, and during the fifth, sixth, and ninth day of treatment. The net mPAP increase in response to acute hypoxia did not change, but the pressure area under the curve (AUC) during hypoxia was slightly lower in 2-APB-treated lambs than in vehicle-treated lambs. Moreover, the 2-APB treatment decreased the pulmonary arterial wall thickness and the α-actin immunoreactivity and increased the luminal area with no changes in the vascular density. Our findings show that 2-APB treatment partially reduced the contractile hypoxic response and reverted the pulmonary vascular remodeling, but this is not enough to normalize the pulmonary hemodynamics in chronically hypoxic newborn lambs.

Magdalena Laska ◽  
Jesper Bonnet Møller ◽  
Jonas Heilskov Graversen ◽  
Dorte Strøbæk ◽  
Linda Blomster ◽  

Background and Purpose: Peptides derived from retroviral envelope proteins have been shown to possess a wide range of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. We have previously reported identification of such a peptide derived from the envelope protein coded by a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV). In this study we assessed effects of this peptide treatment on inhibition of immune response in the DSS-induced mice model of colitis. Furthermore, we identified that in vitro the peptide inhibits the KCa3.1 potassium channel, a potential target for therapy of immune diseases. Experimental Approach: We characterized an immunosuppressive peptide ENV59, from a specific HERV envelope protein, in vivo effects on inflammation control in acute colitis mice model and in vitro on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we described in vitro ENV59-GP3 effects with respect to potency of inhibition on KCa3.1 channels and calcium influx. Key Results: ENV59-GP3 peptide treatment showed reduction of the disease score in the DSS-induced acute colitis mice model, which was comparable to effects of the KCa3.1 channel blocker NS6180. Analysis of cytokine production from DSS-mice model treated animals revealed equipotent inhibitory effects of the ENV59-GP3 and NS6180 compounds on the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β. Patch clamp studies show that the peptide ENV59-GP3 is a blocker of the potassium channel KCa3.1. Conclusion and Implications: Env59-GP3 represents KCa3.1 channel inhibitor underlining the implications of using virus derived channel blockers for treatment of autoimmune diseases. There are no drugs with a similar mechanism of action currently on the market.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Hao Wu ◽  
Xiaodong Xie ◽  
Mingyang Sun ◽  
Min Chen ◽  
Xuan Tao ◽  

Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold great promise for treating cardiovascular disease. Recently, we genetically modified MSCs with high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and these cells demonstrated high mobility by efficient migrating and homing to target neointima. The possible mechanism was investigated in the current study. Methods Rat MSCs were transfected with lentivirus containing HMGB1 cDNA to yield MSC-H cell line stably overexpressing HMGB1. The MSC-C cells which were transfected with empty lentivirus served as negative control, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed by microarray. The cell mobility was determined by transwell migration assay. Intracellular free calcium and the expression of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel (CACNA1H) were assayed to analyze activity of CACNA1H-mediated calcium influx. H2S production and γ-cystathionase expression were examined to assess the activity of γ-cystathionase/H2S signaling. The interaction of HMGB1 with γ-cystathionase in MSC-H cells was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine whether the promoter activity of γ-cystathionase was regulated by interaction of β-catenin and TCF/LEF binding site. Intercellular cAMP, PKA activity, phosphorylation of β-catenin, and GSK3β were investigated to reveal cAMP/PKA mediated β-catenin activation. Result Microarray analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in cAMP signaling and calcium signaling. CACNA1H was upregulated to increase intracellular free calcium and MSC-H cell migration. Blockage of CACNA1H by ABT-639 significantly reduced intracellular free calcium and cell migration. The γ-cystathionase/H2S signaling was responsible for CACNA1H activation. H2S production was increased with high expression of γ-cystathionase in MSC-H cells, which was blocked by γ-cystathionase inhibitor DL-propargylglycine. Upregulation of γ-cystathionase was not attributed to interaction with HMGB1 overexpressed in MSC-H cells although γ-cystathionase was suggested to co-immunoprecipitate with oxidized HMGB1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved TCF/LEF binding site in the promoter of γ-cystathionase gene. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the promoter had positive response to β-catenin which was activated in MSC-H cells. Finally, cAMP/PKA was activated to phosphorylate β-catenin at Ser657 and GSK3β, enabling persisting activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MSC-H cells. Conclusion Our study revealed that modification of MSCs with HMGB1 promoted CACNA1H-mediated calcium influx via PKA/β-catenin/γ-cystathionase pathway. This was a plausible mechanism for high mobility of MSC-H cell line.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-218403
Jiayang Sun ◽  
Chen Zhan ◽  
Zheng Deng ◽  
Wei Luo ◽  
Qiaoli Chen ◽  

Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is characterised by cough hypersensitivity. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been reported to induce calcium influx, action potentials of vagal neurons in vitro and cough response in guinea pigs. While the effect of IFN-γ in CRC patients remains unknown. Here, via flow-cytometry and inhalation cough challenge, we found CRC patients had significantly increased levels of sputum IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells, IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells as well as supernatant of IFN-γ. The average number of coughs in CRC patients increased as the concentration of inhaled IFN-γ went up in IFN-γ cough challenge. Two or more coughs and five or more coughs elicited by inhaled IFN-γ in CRC patients occurred in 7 of 10 and 2 of 10, respectively. Preinhaled IFN-γ (100 µg/mL) increased the capsaicin cough sensitivity in CRC patients but not healthy volunteers. Targeting IFN-γ may be a potential effective anti-tussive strategy in CRC patients.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Joan Serrano ◽  
Nishita N. Meshram ◽  
Mangala M. Soundarapandian ◽  
Kathleen R. Smith ◽  
Carter Mason ◽  

Background: Saccharin is a common artificial sweetener and a bona fide ligand for sweet taste receptors (STR). STR can regulate insulin secretion in beta cells, so we investigated whether saccharin can stimulate insulin secretion dependent on STR and the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. Methods: We performed in vivo and in vitro approaches in mice and cells with loss-of-function of STR signaling and specifically assessed the involvement of a PLC signaling cascade using real-time biosensors and calcium imaging. Results: We found that the ingestion of a physiological amount of saccharin can potentiate insulin secretion dependent on STR. Similar to natural sweeteners, saccharin triggers the activation of the PLC signaling cascade, leading to calcium influx and the vesicular exocytosis of insulin. The effects of saccharin also partially require transient receptor potential cation channel M5 (TRPM5) activity. Conclusions: Saccharin ingestion may transiently potentiate insulin secretion through the activation of the canonical STR signaling pathway. These physiological effects provide a framework for understanding the potential health impact of saccharin use and the contribution of STR in peripheral tissues.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 188
Aya Al Katat ◽  
Juan Zhao ◽  
Angelino Calderone ◽  
Lucie Parent

Intracellular Ca2+ overload secondary to chronic hemodynamic stimuli promotes the recruitment of Ca2+-dependent signaling implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The present study tested the hypothesis that sympathetic-mediated hypertrophy of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) translated to an increase in calcium influx secondary to the upregulation of CaV1.2 channel subunits. Confocal imaging of norepinephrine (NE)-treated NRVMs revealed a hypertrophic response compared to untreated NRVMs. L-type CaV1.2 peak current density was increased 4-fold following a 24-h stimulation with NE. NE-treated NRVMs exhibited a significant upregulation of CaVα2δ1 and CaVβ3 protein levels without significant changes of CaVα1C and CaVβ2 protein levels. Pre-treatment with the β1-blocker metoprolol failed to inhibit hypertrophy or CaVβ3 upregulation whereas CaVα2δ1 protein levels were significantly reduced. NE promoted the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, and the response was attenuated by the β1-blocker. U0126 pre-treatment suppressed NE-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation but failed to attenuate hypertrophy. U0126 inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation prevented NE-mediated upregulation of CaVα2δ1, whereas CaVβ3 protein levels remained elevated. Thus, β1-adrenergic receptor-mediated recruitment of the ERK1/2 plays a seminal role in the upregulation of CaVα2δ1 in NRVMs independent of the concomitant hypertrophic response. However, the upregulation of CaVβ3 protein levels may be directly dependent on the hypertrophic response of NRVMs.

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