In 2020 and 2021 the Southeast Coast Network (SECN) collected shoreline data at Fort Matanzas National Monument as a part of the NPS Vital Signs Monitoring Program. Monitoring was conducted following methods developed by the National Park Service Northeast Barrier Coast Network and consisted of mapping the high tide swash line using a global positioning system (GPS) unit in the spring of each year (Psuty et al. 2010). Shoreline change was calculated using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) developed by USGS (Theiler et al. 2008). Key findings from this effort: A mean of 2,255.23 meters (7,399 feet [ft]) of shoreline were mapped from 2020 to 2021 with a mean horizontal precision of 10.73 centimeters (4.2 inches [in]) at Fort Matanzas National Monument from 2020 to 2021. In the annual shoreline change analysis, the mean shoreline distance change from spring 2020 to spring 2021 was -7.40 meters (-24.3 ft) with a standard deviation of 20.24 meters (66.40 ft). The shoreline change distance ranged from -124.73 to 35.59 meters (-409.1 to 116.7 ft). Two erosion areas and one accretion area were identified in the study area beyond the uncertainty of the data (± 10 meters [32.8 ft]). The annual shoreline change from 2020 to 2021 showed erosion on the east and west sides of A1A where the Matanzas Inlet is located. Overall, the most dynamic area of shoreline change within Fort Matanzas National Monument appeared to be on the east and west side of A1A, along the Matanzas River inlet.
Breeding colonies of wading birds (orders Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes) and seabirds (orders Suliformes, Pelecaniformes) serve as important indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, as they respond to changes in food abundance and quality, contaminants, invasive species, and disturbance. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, Restoration Coordination & Verification program (CERP-RECOVER) has identified wading-bird colonies as an important ecosystem restoration indicator. The National Park Service South Florida/Caribbean Inventory & Monitoring Network (SFCN) ranked colonial nesting birds eighth out of 44 vital signs of park natural resource conditions for ecological significance and feasibility. However, while large-scale monitoring efforts are occurring in the rest of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, only minimal historic data collection and no extensive ongoing monitoring of wading bird and seabird nesting have occurred in Biscayne National Park. Consequently, due to their high importance as biological indicators and because they are a gap occurring in regional monitoring efforts, the network has initiated a monitoring program of colonial nesting birds in Biscayne National Park. This protocol provides the rationale, approach, and detailed Standard Operating Procedures for annual colonial bird monitoring within and close to Biscayne National Park and conforms to the Oakley et al. (2003) guidelines for National Park Service long-term monitoring protocols. The specific objectives of this monitoring program are to determine status and long-term trends in: Numbers and locations of active colonies of colonial nesting birds with a special focus on Double-crested Cormorants, Great Egrets, Great White Herons, Great Blue Herons, White Ibises, and Roseate Spoonbills. Annual peak active nest counts of colonial nesting birds in Biscayne National Park with a special focus on the species mentioned above. An annual nesting index (i.e., sum of monthly nest counts) with a special focus on the species mentioned above. Timing of peak nest counts for the focal species.
Introduction Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs can lead to long-term adverse effects on workers’ health. Environmental monitoring is conducted once a year, as part of a Canadian monitoring program. The objective was to describe contamination with 11 antineoplastic drugs measured on surfaces. Methods Six standardized sites in oncology pharmacy and six in outpatient clinic were sampled in each hospital. Samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (non-platinum drugs) and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (platinum-based drugs). The limits of detection (in ng/cm2) were: 0.0006 for cyclophosphamide; 0.001 for docetaxel; 0.04 for 5-fluorouracil; 0.0004 for gemcitabine; 0.0007 for irinotecan; 0.0009 for methotrexate; 0.004 for paclitaxel, 0.009 for vinorelbine, 0.02 for doxorubicine, 0.0037 for etoposide and 0.004 for the platinum. Sub-analyses were done with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Results 122 Canadian hospitals participated. Cyclophosphamide (451/1412, 32% of positive samples, 90th percentile of concentration 0.0160 ng/cm2) and gemcitabine (320/1412, 23%, 0.0036 ng/cm2) were most frequently measured on surfaces. The surfaces most frequently contaminated with at least one drug were the front grille inside the biological safety cabinet (97/121, 80%) and the armrest of patient treatment chair (92/118, 78%).The distribution of cyclophosphamide concentration was higher for centers that prepared ≥ 5000 antineoplastic drug preparations/year (p < 0.0001). Conclusions This monitoring program allowed centers to benchmark their contamination with pragmatic contamination thresholds derived from the Canadian 90th percentiles. Problematic areas need corrective measures such as decontamination. The program helps to increase the workers’ awareness.
The construction of large earth/rock fill dams, albeit its remarkable progress, still relies largely on past experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive yet dependable monitoring program is particularly beneficial for guiding the practice. However, conventional measurements can only produce limited discrete data. This paper exploits the potential of the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for an accurate inventory of as-built states of a concrete-faced rockfill dam under construction and for a full-field analysis of the 3D deformation pattern over its upstream face. For the former, a well-designed 3D geodetic system, with a particular consideration of the topography, promises a regulated acquisition of high-quality and blind-zone-free point cloud at field and also eases the cumbersome data registration process while maintaining its precision in house. For the latter, a problem-tailored processing pipeline is proposed for deformation extraction. Its core idea is to achieve a highly precise alignment of the point clouds with Iterative Closed Point algorithms from different epochs in datum areas that displays a featured, undeformed geometry at stable positions across epochs. Then, the alignment transformation matrix is applied to the point clouds of respective upstream face for each epoch, followed by pairwise comparisons of multiple adjusted point clouds for deformation evaluation. A processing pipeline is used to exploit the peal scene data redundancy of the GLQ dam acquired at six different epochs. Statistical analysis shows that satisfactory accuracy for deformation detection can be repeatably achieved, regardless of the scanner’s positioning uncertainties. The obtained 3D deformation patterns are characterised by three different zones: practically undeformed, outward and inward deformed zones. Their evolutions comply well with real construction stages and unique 3D valley topography. Abundant deformation results highlight the potential of TLS combined with the proposed data processing pipeline for cost-efficient monitoring of huge infrastructures compared to conventional labor-intense measurements.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Hepatotoxicity is a major reason for medication withdrawal from the markets. Unfortunately, serious adverse hepatic effects can occur after marketing with limited indicators during clinical development. Therefore, finding possible predictors for hepatotoxicity might guide the monitoring program of various stakeholders such as drug regulatory authorities. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To explore the potential of drugs, pre-approval regulatory factors as predictors for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity-related post-marketing regulatory actions. Pre-approval factors were specified as: (a) Hy’s Law hepatotoxicity grade ≥3, (b) accelerated approval status, and (c) labeled hepatic adverse effects and regulatory actions at approval. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Using publicly accessible FDA data, we examined clinical review documents for drugs approved in the USA during the period from 2011 to 2016 to evaluate their hepatic safety profile, identifying the 3 specified indicators for analysis. <b><i>Predictors (Covariates):</i></b> We assessed whether these medications meet: (a) Hy’s Law hepatotoxicity grade ≥3, (b) accelerated approval status, and (c) labeled hepatic adverse effects and regulatory actions at approval. <b><i>Outcome (Dependent Variable):</i></b> Post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity including products withdrawal and updates to either warning, precaution or adverse effects sections. <b><i>Statistical Analysis:</i></b> Drugs that were approved between 2011 and 2016 were included in the analysis with follow-up time from the date of approval until end of December 2019 or the date of first post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, whichever occurred first. The hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using Cox-regression analysis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 192 medications were included in the study. We classified 48 drugs with grade ≥3 hepatotoxicity, 43 with accelerated approval status, and 74 with labeled information about hepatotoxicity prior to marketing. The adjusted HRs for post-marketing regulatory action for products with grade ≥3 hepatotoxicity was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–2.23), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.29–2.93) for drug approved via accelerated approval program, and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.33–2.56) for drugs with labeled hepatotoxicity information at approval time. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Hy’s Law with hepatotoxicity grade ≥3, accelerated approval, and label information on hepatotoxicity were not identified as predictors for post-marketing additional regulatory actions concerning liver adverse effects. However, the evidence is inconclusive due to small sample size and potential channeling bias.
Geographic context matters when trying to understand how permafrost thaw impacts northern freshwater biodiversity in a warming climate. Most risk to freshwater from thawing permafrost is associated with abrupt thaw processes known as thermokarst. Lake sediments can provide a record of thermokarst landscape development and associated biogeochemical and biodiversity trends over long timescales, providing a tool to link thermokarst geomorphology with freshwater biodiversity. We describe how paleolimnology, with its inherent emphasis on long-term perspectives, can characterize the shifting geographic template of warming thermokarst landscapes and its implications for biodiversity. We suggest aligning thermokarst lake paleolimnological research with hypothesis-testing frameworks used by permafrost hydrologists and biogeochemists and by the Freshwater Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, and advocate for knowledge co-production with northern Indigenous communities. Lastly, we stress the importance of considering geographic context in the choice of study sites to ensure that diverse thermokarst landscapes are represented (especially those most vulnerable to warming) and that the fine-scale differences in limnological settings that influence ecosystem response to thermokarst stressors are accounted for.
Severe iodine deficiency during gestation is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, remains unclear.
We extracted follow-up data for 7435 pregnant women from a national iodine deficiency disorders monitoring program from 2016 to 2018 and a mother–child cohort study in 2017 based on a birth registry in Shanghai. Birth outcomes were collected from the registry. Spot urine and household salt samples were collected for iodine testing. Single-factor analysis and logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between maternal iodine status and pregnancy outcomes.
The median urine iodine level in pregnant women was 137.5 μg/L (interquartile range 82.4–211.5), suggesting mild deficiency according to WHO standards. The incidence of pregnancy termination, preterm birth, congenital malformations, low birth weight, and cesarean section was 3.2%, 4.3%, 1.4%, 2.7%, and 45.2% in the mildly iodine-deficient group and 3.4%, 4.5%, 1.4%, 2.7%, and 44.5% in the normal group, respectively. After adjusting for maternal age and education, trimesters, and preterm birth rate in the general population, the odds ratios for any outcome did not differ significantly between the two groups.
The present study suggests that mild maternal iodine deficiency is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.