kolmogorov smirnov
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 250-254
Maftuhatur Rizkiyah Putri ◽  
Almira Disya Salsabil ◽  
I Made Agus Dwipayana ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has harmed various fields, and people's activities cannot run as usual. Prevention of the transmission of COVID-19 is very important to be applied in everyday life. Washing hands with soap or hand sanitizer is easy and inexpensive prevention to do, but there are still many people who are wrong in practicing it. This needs to be done more counseling and education to the community in order to increase public knowledge about handwashing and hand sanitizer. Method: This research is an analytic study with a research design using a one-group pretest-posttest design. Using 31 respondents from Taro villagers who attended the counseling. Data analysis using Paired Sample T-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Normality Test. Result: The average value of knowledge before counseling is 53.8710 while the value after counseling is 82.9677. Paired Sample T-test and obtained a significance value of 0.000 so that a significant difference was found (<0.005) between the values before and after counseling. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the level of knowledge before and after handwashing and hand sanitizer counseling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 086-091
Nofita Fachryandini ◽  
Shabrina Nur Imanina ◽  
Ayurveda Zaynabila Heriqbaldi ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Introduction: Taro village has a higher risk of gathering the people since it is one of the most popular tourism sectors in Bali hence increasing the potential to spread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The level of knowledge plays an important role in determining whether the society is ready to implement the health protocols or not. This community service aims to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 health protocols in the tourism sector in the Taro village. Method: This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design in Taro village, Bali. Respondents filled out the questionnaire before and after counseling. The questionnaire consisted of 10 items of knowledge. The participants were Taro’s residents who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 31 respondents were taken. The data were tested for normality with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and analyzed with paired T-test using the IBM SPSS statistics version 25. Significance was determined at a 5% level (P-value ≤0.05). Results: A total of 31 valid filled-questionnaires were collected. In general, Taro’s residents’ knowledge regarding COVID-19 health protocol in the tourism sector was sufficient, but some topics are still insufficient. The mean score before counseling was 79,03 ± 1,340 while the mean score after counseling was 86,13 ± 1,366. There was a significant difference (p<0,05) on level of knowledge (p=0,000) before and after counseling. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the level of knowledge of Taro village’s residents toward COVID-19 health protocols in the tourism sector before and after counseling.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522110728
Clémence Delafoy ◽  
Claudine Roussy ◽  
Anny-France Hudon ◽  
Ciprian Mihai Cirtiu ◽  
Nicolas Caron ◽  

Introduction Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs can lead to long-term adverse effects on workers’ health. Environmental monitoring is conducted once a year, as part of a Canadian monitoring program. The objective was to describe contamination with 11 antineoplastic drugs measured on surfaces. Methods Six standardized sites in oncology pharmacy and six in outpatient clinic were sampled in each hospital. Samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (non-platinum drugs) and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (platinum-based drugs). The limits of detection (in ng/cm2) were: 0.0006 for cyclophosphamide; 0.001 for docetaxel; 0.04 for 5-fluorouracil; 0.0004 for gemcitabine; 0.0007 for irinotecan; 0.0009 for methotrexate; 0.004 for paclitaxel, 0.009 for vinorelbine, 0.02 for doxorubicine, 0.0037 for etoposide and 0.004 for the platinum. Sub-analyses were done with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Results 122 Canadian hospitals participated. Cyclophosphamide (451/1412, 32% of positive samples, 90th percentile of concentration 0.0160 ng/cm2) and gemcitabine (320/1412, 23%, 0.0036 ng/cm2) were most frequently measured on surfaces. The surfaces most frequently contaminated with at least one drug were the front grille inside the biological safety cabinet (97/121, 80%) and the armrest of patient treatment chair (92/118, 78%).The distribution of cyclophosphamide concentration was higher for centers that prepared ≥ 5000 antineoplastic drug preparations/year (p < 0.0001). Conclusions This monitoring program allowed centers to benchmark their contamination with pragmatic contamination thresholds derived from the Canadian 90th percentiles. Problematic areas need corrective measures such as decontamination. The program helps to increase the workers’ awareness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
R. Alshenawy ◽  
Navid Feroze ◽  
Ali Al-Alwan ◽  
Mahreen Saleem ◽  
Sahidul Islam

This study discusses the posterior estimation for the parameters of the Burr type II distribution (BIID). The informative and noninformative priors along with different loss functions have also been assumed for the posterior estimation. The applicability of the proposed distribution has also been discussed. The modeling capability of the proposed model has been compared with seven classes of the lifetime distributions using real data. The generalizations of Weibull, exponential, Rayleigh, gamma, log normal, Pareto, Maxwell, Levy, Laplace, inverse gamma, Gompertz, chi-square, inverse chi-square, half normal, and log-logistic distributions have been considered for the comparison. The comparison has been made based on different goodness-of-fit criteria, such as Akaike information criteria (AIC), Bayesian information criteria (BIC), and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Based on the results from the study, it can be suggested that the BIID can efficiently replace commonly used lifetime distributions and their modifications. The results under this model were comparable with different conventional/modified distributions having up to six parameters.

Trijani Suwandi ◽  
Vidya Nursolihati ◽  
Mikha Sundjojo ◽  
Armelia Sari Widyarman

Abstract Objective SARS-CoV-2 can be carried by aerosols and droplets produced during dental procedures, particularly by the use of high-speed handpieces, air-water syringes, and ultrasonic scalers. High-volume evacuators (HVEs) and extraoral vacuum aspirators (EOVAs) reduce such particles. However, there is limited data on their efficacy. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of HVE and EOVA in reducing aerosols and droplets during ultrasonic scaling procedures. Materials and Methods Three ultrasonic scaling simulations were conducted on mannequins: 1. saliva ejector (SE) was used alone (control); 2. SE was used in combination with HVE; and 3. SE was used in combination with HVE and EOVA. Paper filters were placed on the operator's and assistant's face shields and bodies, and the contamination of aerosols and droplets was measured by counting blue spots on the paper filters. Statistical Analysis All data were analyzed for normality using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The differences between each method were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA, followed by a posthoc test. The differences were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05 Result Using HVE and EOVA reduced aerosols and droplets better than using SE alone or SE and HVE: the posthoc test for contamination revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01). The assistant was subjected to greater contamination than the operator during all three ultrasonic scaling procedures. Conclusion The usage of HVE and EOVA significantly reduced aerosols and droplets compared with using SE solely. Using these techniques together could prevent the transmission of airborne disease during dental cleanings, especially COVID-19. Further studies of aerosol-reducing devices are still needed to ensure the safety of dental workers and patients.

Sima Fallah Arzpeyma ◽  
Ehsan Kazemnezhad-Leili ◽  
Hosna Rashidi ◽  
Samaneh Ghorbani-Shirkouhi ◽  
Alia Saberi

Abstract Background/Aim In noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT), an apparently hyper-attenuated cerebral venous sinus (CVS) may lead to suspicion of CVS thrombosis. Understanding the factors affecting attenuation of CVS can guide us toward true diagnosis. Hence, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of different factors such as hematocrit, hemoglobin, age, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, leukocyte and platelet count, and sex on the attenuation of CVS on brain NCCT. Material and Methods Total 1,680 patients were included in this study, and their demographic and laboratory data and brain NCCT were reviewed. In their brain NCCT, the average attenuation of superior sagittal sinus and both right and left sigmoid sinuses was measured. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 software by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression tests. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results Hematocrit (B = 0.251, p < 0.001), hemoglobin (B = 0.533, p < 0.001), and creatinine (B =  − 0.270, p = 0.048) were determined as predictors of attenuation of superior sagittal sinus. For both sigmoid sinuses, hematocrit (p < 0.001) and hemoglobin (p < 0.001) were determined as positive predictors, and creatinine (p < 0.001) and BUN (p < 0.002) were determined as negative and positive predictors, respectively. Conclusion Hemoglobin, hematocrit, creatinine, and BUN are the main factors that should be considered in the assessment of CVS density on brain NCCT. As with increasing hematocrit and hemoglobin of the subject, the CVS density in NCCT increases, and with increasing creatinine and in some instance decreasing BUN of the subject, the CVS density in NCCT decreases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 384
Manuppak Irianto Tampubolon ◽  
Ros Sumarny ◽  
Yati Sumiyati

Obesitas merupakan keadaan dimana terjadi ketidaknormalan atau kelebihan akumulasi lemak dalam tubuh yang disimpan dalam jaringan adiposa. Keadaan obesitas akan mempengaruhi sekresi adiponektin. C-reactive protein merupakan suatu globulin yang disintesis oleh hepatosit, produksi CRP ini diinduksi oleh interleukin-6, interleukin-1 dan tumor necrosis factor α, yang kemudian akan disekresi ke dalam darah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara inflamasi dengan gangguan metabolisme karbohidrat dan metabolisme lipid serta mendapatkan data kadar High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein sebagai penanda inflamasi, Kadar glukosa darah untuk menilai gangguan metabolisme glukosa, sedangkan kolesterol, trigliserida, LDL untuk menilai gangguan metabolisme lipid dan mengetahui hubungan antara High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein dengan glukosa darah dan profil lipid (kolesterol total, trigliserida dan LDL) pada mahasiswa obesitas Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Pancasila. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode observasional dengan rancangan penelitian cross sectional dengan pengambilan data secara consecutive sampling dimana peneliti melalukan pengukuran terhadap indikator obesitas (berat badan, tinggi badan, lingkar pinggang) kadar C-Reactive Protein (CRP) dan profil lipid. Uji statisitik yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Kolmogorov smirnov, Leaven test dan Spearman. Karakteristik responden berdasarkan parameter indeks massa tubuh didapatkan sebesar 27.54 kg/m2. Distribusi frekuensi pada parameter jenis kelamin yang paling banyak dengan jenis kelamin perempuan sebanyak 74,1%. Rerata lingkar perut sebesar 91.97 cm. Diketahui rata-rata 48,1% mahasiswa obesitas fakultas farmasi mengalami hiperglikemia, 48,1% mengalami hiperkoleterolemia, 37% hipertrigliseridemia, 88,9% hiperbetalipoprotenemia dan 29,6% mahasiswa memiliki kadar hs-CRP > 3 mg/L. Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara hs-CRP dan indeks massa tubuh (r = 0.503 dan p = 0.007) serta didapatkan juga hubungan bermakna antara indeks massa tubuh dan tekanan darah diastolik (r= 0.506 dan p = 0.007). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa indeks massa tubuh (IMT) berkolerasi dengan hs-CRP dan tekanan darah diastolik.

Kontis Panagiotis ◽  
Güth Jan-Frederik ◽  
Keul Christine

Abstract Objectives To compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of direct digitization of four different dental gap situation with two IOS (intraoral scanner). Materials and methods Four partially edentulous polyurethane mandible models were used: (1) A (46, 45, 44 missing), (2) B (45, 44, 34, 35 missing), (3) C (42, 41, 31, 32 missing), and (4) D (full dentition). On each model, the same reference object was fixed between the second molars of both quadrants. A dataset (REF) of the reference object was generated by a coordinate measuring machine. Each model situation was scanned by (1) OMN (Cerec AC Omnicam) and (2) PRI (Cerec Primescan AC) (n = 30). Datasets of all 8 test groups (N = 240) were analyzed using inspection software to determine the linear aberrations in the X-, Y-, Z-axes and angular deviations. Mann–Whitney U and two-sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests were used to detect differences for trueness and precision. Results PRI revealed higher trueness and precision in most of the measured parameters ($${\overrightarrow{V}}_{E}$$ V → E  120.95 to 175.01 μm, $$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E (x) − 58.50 to − 9.40 μm, $$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E (z) − 70.35 to 63.50 μm), while OMN showed higher trueness for $$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E  (y) regardless of model situation (− 104.90 to 34.55 μm). Model D revealed the highest trueness and precision in most of the measured parameters regardless of IOS ($$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E  120.95 to 195.74 μm, $$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E (x) − 9.40 to 66.75 μm,$$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E (y) − 14.55 to 51.50 μm, $$\overrightarrow{V}_{E}$$ V → E (z) 63.50 to 120.75 μm). Conclusions PRI demonstrated higher accuracy in the X- and Z-axes, while OMN depicted higher trueness in the Y-axis. For PRI, Model A revealed the highest distortion, while for OMN, Model B produced the largest aberrations in most parameters. Clinical relevance Current results suggest that both investigated IOS are sufficiently accurate for the manufacturing of tooth-borne restorations and orthodontic appliances. However, both hardware specifications of IOS and the presence of edentulous gaps in the dental model have an influence on the accuracy of the virtual model dataset.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110604
Dudley B. Christie ◽  
Timothy E. Nowack ◽  
Cory J. Nonnemacher ◽  
Anne Montgomery ◽  
Dennis W. Ashley

Introduction Rib fractures in the ≥65-year-old population have been shown to strongly influence mortality and pneumonia rates. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating improvements in the geriatric patient’s survival statistics and respiratory performances after surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF). We have observed a strong survival and complication avoidance trend in geriatric patients who undergo SSRF. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of geriatric patients with rib fractures treated with SSRF compared to those who only receive conservative therapies. Methods We performed a retrospective review of our trauma registry analyzing outcomes of patients ≥65 years with rib fractures. Patients admitted from 2015 to 2019 receiving SSRF (RP group) were compared to a nonoperative controls (NO group) admitted during the same time. Bilateral fractures were excluded. Independent variables analyzed = ISS, mortalities, hospital days, ICU days, pleural space complications, and readmissions. Follow-up was 60 days after discharge. Group comparison was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results 257 patients were analyzed: 172 in the NO group with mean age of 75 (65-10) and 85 in the RP group with mean age of 74 (65-96). Mean ISS = 13 (1-38) for the NO group and 20 (9-59) for the RP group ( P < .001). Mean hospital days = 8 (1-39) and 15 (3-49) in NO and RP groups, respectively. Mean ICU days = 10 (1-32) and 8 (1-11) in NO and RP groups, respectively. Deaths, pneumonia, readmissions, and pleural effusions in the NO group were statistically significant ( P < .01). Analysis of complications revealed 4 RP patients (4.7%) with respiratory complications out to 60 days and 65 NO patients (37.8%) ( P < .001). Conclusions Surgical stabilization of rib fractures appears to be associated with a survival advantage and an avoidance of respiratory-related complications in the ≥65-year-old patient population.

Risks ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Moch Panji Agung Saputra ◽  
Sukono ◽  
Diah Chaerani

The application of industry 4.0 in banking presents many challenges, with several operational risks related to downtime and timeout services due to system failures. One of the operational risk management steps is to estimate the value of the maximum potential losses. The purpose of this study is to estimate the maximum potential losses for digital banking transaction risks. The method used for estimating risks is the EVaR method. There are several steps in this study. The first step is to resample the data using MEBoot. This process is a simulation of the operational risk loss data of digital banking. Next, the threshold value is determined to obtain the extreme data value. Then, a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test is conducted to fit the data with the GPD. Afterward, the GPD parameter is estimated. Then, EVaR is calculated using a portfolio approach to obtain a combination of risk values as maximum potential losses. The analysis results show that the maximum potential loss is IDR144,357,528,750.94. The research results imply that the banks need to pay attention to the maximum potential losses of digital financial transactions as a reference for risk management. Therefore, banks can anticipate the adequacy of reserve funds for these potential risks.

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